cover

Klaus-Ulrich Reimann:

Geology of Bangladesh

Contrib.: Karl Hiller

1993. VIII, 160 pages, 46 figures, 5 tables, 17x25cm, 580 g
Language: English

(Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde, Band 20)

ISBN 978-3-443-11020-8, bound, price: 63.00 €

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Keywords

geology Bangladesh hydrocarbon paleogeography Carboniferous Bengal Basin India

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

The present volume is the synthesis of the results of over 6 years of geological research in Bangladesh. Intensified hydrocarbon exploration in Bangladesh during the last 2 decades has provided a wealth of new insights into the sedimentary and structural history of the country. The paleogeographical reconstruction of the Bengal Basin from the Carboniferous to the present is based primarily on the results of the geological, biostratigraphical, geophysical and geochemical studies carried out in the course of these exploratory activities.

By including geological and stratigraphical data from the neighboring Indian states of Assam, Tripura, Mizoram as well as West Bengal and Bihar, the book broadens its scope and achieves the status of a supra-regional study of the Bengal Basin.

In addition to a detailed, stratigraphical account, emphasis is placed on presentation of the individual stages of the structural history in conjunction with the evolving paleogeography. Treatment begins with Gondwana, its fragmenta- tion, the drift phase of the Indian plate, collision with Eurasia, subduction in the north and east and the ultimately resulting orogeny and continues to include the development of the world’s largest delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.

Rich reserves of natural gas, coal and recently discovered petroleum have transformed Bangladesh into a focal point of commercial exploration for energy resources. Presentation of the results of hydrocarbon exploration in Bangla- desh takes on a new significance in light of these reserves and is consequently a further, major topic of the book. The tables and lucid maps included provide exploration geologists with a well-prepared and up-to-date synopsis of the ‘present stage of knowledge.

Of interest to all geoscientists and geoscientifc institutions, geop/aysicists, minerulogists, petrograplyers, geographers, paleonto- logists, mining and petroleum industry, oil and oilgas industry, scientific libraries.

Contents top ↑

Preface V
1. General introduction 1
1.1 Area and population 1
1.2 Physiography 3
1.3 Hydrography 7
1.4 Climate, vegetation 10
2. Regional geology 17
2.1 Setting within South Asia 17
2.2 Regional structural features 19
2.21 Fold Belt 19
2.22 Bengal Foredeep 21
2.23 Continental Slope 22
2.24 Western Foreland Shelf 23
2.25 Rangpur Saddle 23
2.26 Himalayan Foredeep 23
2.27 Dauki Fault Zone 24
3. Stratigraphy 25
3.1 General remarks 25
3.2 Precambrian 26
3.3 Paleozoic 27
3.31 Gondwana System 27
3.311 Lower Gondwana 27
3.311.1 Permian 27
3.311.11 Damuda Series 30
3.4 Mesozoic 31
3.41 Upper Gondwana 31
3.411 Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous 32
3.411.1 Rajmahal Stage 32
3.42 Upper Cretaceous 33
3.421 Sibganj Formation 33
3.5 Cenozoic 34
3.51 Paleogene 34
3.511 Paleocene and Lower Eocene 34
3.511.1 Tura Formation 34
3.512 Middle Eocene 36
3.512.1 Sylhet Limestone Formation 36
3.513 Upper Eocene 38
3.513.1 Kopili Formation 38
3.514 Oligocene 42
3.514.1 Oligocene in the Indian sector of the Western
Foreland Shelf 42
3.514.11 Burdwan Formation 42
3.514.12 Memari Formation 43
3.514.2 Oligocene in the Bangladesh sector of the
Western Foreland Shelf and in the Garo Hills 43
3.514.3 Barail Group 46
3.514.31Jenam Formation 46
3.514.32Renji Formation 47
3.52 Neogene 48
3.521 Miocene of the Western Foreland Shelf 49
3.521.1 Lower Miocene 52
3.521.2 Middle Miocene 53
3.521.3 Upper Miocene 54
3.522 Miocene of the foredeep - Surma Group 55
3.522.1 Bhuban Formation 56
3.522.2 Boka Bil Formation 61
3.523 Pliocene 64
3.523.1 Tipam Group 65
3.523.11 Tipam Sandstone Formation 65
3.523.12 Giruian Clay Formation 66
3.523.2 Dupi Tila Formation 67
3.523.3 Dumurtala Formation 67
3.523.4 Bilkona Formation 69
3.53 Quaternary 71
3.531 Pleistocene 71
3.531.1 Madbupur Clay 71
3.531.2 Dihing Formation 71
3.531.3 Dalu Formation 73
3.531.4 Lauchapara Formation 73
3.6 Himalayan Foredeep 75
3.61 Siwalik Group 75
4. Structural geology 77
4.1 General 77
4.2 Carboniferous-Permian epeirogenic phase 77
4.3 Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous break-up of Gondwanaland 78
4.4 Phase of passive continental margin tectonics 79
4.5 Subduction, plate collision and young orogenic deformation 80
5. Paleogeography 85
5.1 Pre-rift stage 85
5.2 Rift stage 86
5.3 Drift and continental platform stage 87
5.4 Prograding Neogene delta 91
6. Raw materials 97
6.1 General 97
6.2 Energy raw materials 97
6.21 Hydrocarbons (K. MILLER) 97
6.211 Introduction 97
6.212 Brief summary of exploration history 98
6.213 Petroleumgeological provinces 99
6.213.1 Himalayan Foredeep 99
6.213.2 Stable Shelf 100
6.213.3 Hinge-Zone 103
6.213.4 Bengal Foredeep 104
6.213.5 Fold Belt 105
6.213.51 Setting 105
6.213.52 Surma Basin 110
6.213.521 Sedimentary sequence 110
6.213.522 Basin relief 110
6.213.523 Structural growth and style 114
6.213.524 Development of migration pattern 114
6.213.525 Hydrocarbons, source rocks and maturity 115
6.213.526 Coincidence between hydrocarbon generation, migration,
accumulation and trap growth 118
6.213.53 Chittagong Hill Tracts 119
6.213.54 Production, reserves and further prospectivity of the
Fold Belt 120
6.22 Coal 122
6.221 Gondwana coals 122
6.222 Tertiary coals 123
6.23 Peat 124
6.3 Metallic raw materials 124
6.31 Ore minerals 124
6.4 Non-metallic raw materials 125
6.41 Industrial minerals 125
6.411 Limestone 125
6.412 Iiaolin 126
6.413 Glass sand 128
6.414 Mineral sand 128
6.42 Stones, earths 129
6.421 Hard rocks 129
6.422 Clay, shale, claystone 130
6.5 Groundwater 131
6.6 Soils 135
Acknowledgments 136
References 137

Index 152