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Geology of Pakistan

With a contribution on nuclear fuels by F. Barthel and H. Fohse and on bituminous rocks by H. Porth

Ed.: Friedrich Bender; Hilal A. Raza

1995. 1. edition, X, 414 pages, 140 figures, 38 tables, 17x25cm, 1520 g
Language: English

(Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde, Band 25)

ISBN 978-3-443-11025-3, bound, price: 127.00 €

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Keywords

geology rock bituminous Pakistan

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

"Geology of Pakistan" presents the first-ever monographic synopsis of the geology of Pakistan available to date.
Pakistan is a large country (79600 sq. kilometers in size) with a complex structure, which reflects its location at the boundary of the Eurasian, Indo-Pakistan and Arabian plates. Collision of these plates in the Quaternary gave rise to some of the highest mountains in the world (Himalayas, Hindukush etc. ). Ten chapters, authoritatively written by the ten contributors, synthesize the information available on the geology and the natural resources of Pakistan presently. The formation of sedimentary basins in response to tectonic activity, their evolution and stratigraphy are discussed, as are the rich but largely unexplored hydrocarbon deposits which formed in these basins. Complex processes formed a wealth of mineral- and ore deposits, which have prompted prospection, exploration but also systematic scientific study from the 19th century on.

The authors expand on all aspects of Pakistans geology, among them: regional geology, tectonic units, basin formation, paleogeographic evolution, formation and occurrence of metamorphic and igneous rocks, water resources, hydrocarbon deposits and potential, mineral resources, and even more, including the pedological characteristics of her soils.

"Geology of Pakistan" provides the reader with a wealth of current data on Pakistan in the text, supplemented by more than 140 figures and a comprehensive list of literature references. The book also includes four full color Landsat images and three large-size (60x80 cm) color maps of the structure of the Western Fold Belt, constructed from Landsat-MSS imagery.

Contents top ↑

1. General introduction (HILAL A. RAZA and FRIEDRICH K. BENDER) 1
1.1 Area and population 1
1.2 Physiographic units 3
1.3 Climate and vegetation 5
1.4 History of geological research 9
2. Geological framework 11
2.1 Introduction (FRIEDRICH K. BENDER) 11
2.2 Principal geological divisions 16
2.21 The Chagai and Ras Koh area (DIETRICH BANNERT) 18
2.211 The Chagai Hills 19
2.212 The Dalbandin Trough 19
2.213 The Ras Koh Geanticline and Ras Koh-Mirjawa Flysch
Belts 20
2.214 The Mashkhel Depression 22
2.22 The Makran-Khojak-Pishin Flysch Zone (HIEAE A. RAZA and
DIETRICH BANNERT) 22
2.221 The Makran Flysch Segment 22
2.222 The Khojak Flysch Segment 25
2.223 The Pishin Flysch Segment 25
2.23 The West Pakistan Foldbelt (DIETRICH BANNERT) 26
2.24 Indus Basin (FRIEDRICH K. BENDER) 28
2.25 The Tethyan Belt (FAIZ AHMAD SHAMS) 31
2.251 The Lower Himalayas 34
2.252 The Higher Himalayas 43
2.253 The Kohistan Island Arc Complex 45
2.254 The Karakorum Block 56
2.255 The Hindu Kush elements 61
3. Sedimentary sequence (AKI H. KAZMI) 63
3.1 Precambrian sedimentary rocks 63
3.2 Paleozoic sedimentary rocks 73
3.21 Cambrian 73
3.22 Ordovician - Silurian 76
3.23 Devonian 77
3.24 Carboniferous - Permian 78
3.3 Mesozoic sedimentary rocks 87
3.31 Triassic 87
3.32 Jurassic 90
3.33 Cretaceous 94
3.4 Cenozoic sedimentary rocks 101
3.41 Palaeogene 103
3.42 The Palaeogene sequence in the West Pakistan Foldbelt 105
3.43 Neogene 114
3.44 Quaternary 118
4. Igneous and metamorphic rocks (FAIL AHMAD SHAMS) 125
4.1 Igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Tethyan Belt 125
4.11 Indo-Pakistan Plate 125
4.111 South of the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) Zone 125
4.112 South of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) Zone 127
4.113 West of the River Indus 127
4.114 Alkaline igneous province 128
4.115 Post Hercynian events 130
4.12 Kohistan Island Arc Complex 131
4.2 Karakorum Block 133
4.3 Eastern Hindukush 133
4.4 Elements of the Indian Craton south of the Himalyas 134
4.5 West Pakistan Foldbelt 134
4.6 Chagai-Ras Koh Volcanic Arc 136
4.7 Additional igneous rocks 137
5. Tectonics and structure 138
5.1 Plate boundaries and regional fabric (FRIEDRiCH K. BENDER) 138
5.2 Tectonic zones 142
5.21 Shield elements and buried ridges (FAIZ AHMAD SHAMS) 143
5.22 Indus Basin (FRIEDRICH K. BENDER) 146
5.23 The West Pakistan Foldbelt (D~ETR~cH BANNERT) 148
5.231 Khuzdar Block 148
5.232 Sulaiman Block 149
5.233 The Bela-Waziristan Ophiolite Zone 156
5.24 The Chagai-Ras Koh Volcanic Arc 157
5.25 The Makran-Khojak-Pishin Flysch Zone 158
6. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic evolution (FRiEDRICH K. BENDER) 162
6.1 Late Proterozoic ("Infra-Cambrian") and Phanerozoic 164
6.2 Mesozoic 168
6.3 Cenozoic 174
6.31 Cenozoic of the Indus Basin 174
6.32 Cretaceous and Cenozoic of the Himalayas 176
6.33 Cenozoic of the West Pakistan Foldbelt (DIETRICH BANNERT) 178
7. Energy resources 182
7.1 Hydrocarbons (HILAE A. RAZA and FRIEDRICH K. BENDER) 182
7.11 Basin definition 183
7.12 Kohat-Potwar Foredeep 184
7.13 Northern Lower Indus Basin and Sulaiman Foredeep 189
7.14 Central Lower Indus Basin and Kirthar Foredeep 192
7.15 Southern Lower Indus Basin and offshore area 196
7.16 Baluchistan region and offshore area 201
7.2 Bituminous rocks (HANS PORTH) 203
7.3 Coal (ALI H. KAZMI) 206
7.31 Kohat - Potwar region 208
7.32 Quetta - Harnai - Duki coal region 211
7.33 Lower Sindh coal region 214
7.4 Nuclear fuels (FAIR AHMAD SHAMS, FRITZ BARTHEL and H. FOHSE) 219
7.5 Geothermal energy resources (AKI H. KAZMI) 225
7.51 Geopressurised systems 226
7.52 Seismotectonic and suture related systems 231
7.53 Systems related to Neogene-Quaternary volcanism 232
8. Metallic raw materials (FAIZ AHMAD SHAMS) 235
8.1 Metallogeny 239
8.2 Noble metals, niobium, tantalum, tellurium 240
8.3 Platinum group metals 243
8.4 Non-ferrous metals 243
8.5 Ferrous metals 247
8.51 Igneous and contact metasomatic iron 247
8.52 Hydrothermal iron 249
8.53 Sedimentary iron 249
8.6 Light metals 254
8.7 Special metals 255
8.8 Rare Earths 257
9. Non-metallic raw materials (FRIEDRICH K. BENDER) 258
9.1 Industrial minerals 259
9.2 Stones and earths 274
9.3 Salts 279
9.4 Gemstones (ALI H. KAZMI) 281
10. Water (HANS BENDER) 291
10.1 Surface water 291
10.11 Snow and ice as water resources 291
10.2 The hydrogeological basins 292
10.21 The Indus Basin 292
10.211 The Punjab 297
10.212 Cholistan (Bahawaepur) 310
10.213 The lower Indus Valley 313
10.214 Tharparkar 315
10.215 Quaternary sub-basins west of the Indus River 316
10.216 Basins of the Indus catchment area in Baluchistan 321
10.217 The Potwar uplands (Rawalpindi) 322
10.22 The Makran Coast catchment area 323
10.221 Porali River basin 323
10.222 Hingol River basin 324
10.223 Dasht River basin 324
10.23 The Kharan Desert catchment (enclosed drainage basins
of Baluchistan) 324
10.231 Hamun-i-Mashkel Basin 324
10.232 Hamun-i-Lora Basin 325
10.3 Groundwater in consolidated rocks 325
10.4 Thermal springs 327
11. Soils (FRANZ H. GRÜNEBERG) 329
11.1 Effects of environment on soil formation 329
11.11 Climatic factors and soil development 329
11.12 Geomorphological features and soil development 332
11.13 Lithology and soil formation 334
11.14 Effect of vegetation on soil development 335
11.2 Classification and distribution of soils 336
11.21 Aridisols 338
11.211 Orthids 338
11.212 Argids 341
11.22 Entisols 344
11.221 Aquents 344
11.222 Fluvents 344
11.223 Orthents 344
11.224 Psamments 345
11.23 Inceptisols 345
11.231 Aquepts 347
11.232 Ochrepts 347
11.24 Alfisols 347
11.241 Udalfs 350
11.242 Ustalfs 350
11.25 Mollisols 350
11.251 Borolls 353
11.252 Udolls 353
11.253 Ustolls 353
11.254 Xerolls 353
11.26 Vertisols 355
11.261 Torrerts 355
11.262 Usterts 355
Bibliography 357
Subject Index 411