Selam Meco; Shyqyri Aliaj:

Geology of Albania

2000. X, 246 pages, 116 figures, 1 table, 17x25cm, 750 g
Language: English

(Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde, Band 28)

ISBN 978-3-443-11028-4, bound, price: 98.00 €

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Synopsis top ↑

This is the first English-language book on the Geology of Albania.
Albania is a very small country but it is characterized by a variety of geological formations of different periods. These are described with special attention to Albanias geological situation as part of the Dinaride-Hellenide Mountain range.
Consequently, the author treats the geological structures of Albania in detail and links them with the equivalent zones of the Dinarides and Hellenides and their respective stratigraphic columns. He addresses problems of magmatic rocks (some ophiolites in Albania provide the most complete ultramafic sections in the Mediterranean region), mineral deposits and much more.
Additionally, the book attempts to integrate neotectonic and seismotectonic features of Albania with its palaeogeographical development.

The new volume aims to stimulate interest in Albanian geology, in particular among foreign geologists, and to enlighten all who read it.

Review: "kngmg alw ktfg nieuwsbrief" March 2002, p. 12 top ↑

This book gives a detailed account of the geology of Albania in a typical Albanian, very descriptive manner. The authors make a promising start by beginning with the geological position of Albania in the context of Mediterranean plate tectonics. Tapponier in 1977 published the tectonic map that is used for illustration. This is fine for setting the large-scale tectonic framework, but it is unfortunately not followed by a more recent tectonic map of the eastern Mediterranean, or by up to date information on regional tectonics. The book contains successive chapters on the geological structure of Albania, geological profiles, magmatism, Tertiary molasse basins and neo-tectonics and seismicity. I personally would have placed the chapter on the geological evolution of Albania that follows much earlier in the book (e.g. as second chapter) in order to provide a framework in which the information of the other chapters can be logically placed. The chapter 'Geological profiles of tectonic zones', is extensive (81 pp) and contains a great deal of detailed information in the form of cross-sections, maps and stratigraphic columns. It is unfortunate I that most of the figures are not accompanied by a map and cannot be located. Each structural zone in The country is described in a separate section that briefly mentions structure, but mostly focuses on ethology and stratigraphy. The chapters on magmatism and on molasse basins follow the same pattern, of a description of the rock types and where they can be found, without paying attention to why they are what they are and why they are where they are. The neo-tectonics and seismicity is subsequently treated in a chapter preceding that on the geological evolution of the country. A reversed order appears more logical. An extensive account is given of the earthquake history in Albania. The lists of earthquakes with M>6 are impressive. The seismogenic zones mentioned are now well-documented features that stand on their own instead of being placed in the regional tectonic context. The map of seismogenic zones beautifully illustrates the link between these zones and deep earthquakes. It may not be feasible to link all the seismogenic zones with plate boundaries, but some of the more important ones would certainly have benefited from such a comparison.

The kinematics related to the massive movements of the structural zones in Albania is described o using references of more recent date than in the rest of the book, albeit that most references are of Albanian authors and are mostly written in Albanian. The few texts in English are often published in the Bulletin of the Albanian Geological Survey and, therefore, not, or not easily, accessible to foreign readers. Three of the seven non-Albanian references in this chapter lot are not included in the reference list.

D. A. Nieuwland (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

"kngmg alw ktfg nieuwsbrief" March 2002, p. 12

Contents top ↑

Preface (S. Meco) V
1 An outline of geography and geological researches in Albania
1.1 Geographical view 1
1.2 Geological researches 3
2 Overview of the geological structure of Albania (S. Meco &
Sh. Aliaj) 8
2.1 The geological position of Albania 8
2.2 The structural zones north of the Shkodra-Peja transversal and
their connections with the Dinandes 12
2.3 The structural zones south of the Shkodra-Peja transversal and
their connections with the Hellenides 16
3 Geological profiles of tectonic zones (S. MECO) 22
3.1 External zones 22
3.1.1 Sazani Zone 22
3.1.2 Ionian Zone 27
3.1.3 Kruja Zone 42
3.1.4 Krasta Zone 49
3.1.5 Cukali Zone 61
3.1.6 Albanian Alps Zone 73
3.1.7 Vermoshi Zone 79
3.2 Internal zones 82
3.2.1 Mirdita Zone 82
3.2.2 Korabi Zone 89
3.2.3 Gashi Zone 103

4 Magmatism (I. TURKU) 108
4.1 Palaeozoic magmatism 108
4.1.1 Volcanics 108
4.1.2 Intrusives 109
4.2 Triassic magmatism 112
4.2.1 Sub-conunental volcanics of the Verrucano and
schistose-sandstone series 113
4.2.2 Sub-aqueous volcanics of the Triassic volcano-sedimentary series 114
1. Korabi Zone 114
2. Mirdita Zone 115
3. Gashi Zone 119
4. Krasta-Cukali Zone 120
5. Albanian Alps Zone 120

6. Ionian Zone 120
4.3 Jurassic ophiolitic magmatism and its genesis 121
4.4 Possible post-Jurassic magmatism 130
5 Tertiary molasse basins (SH. ALIAJ) 133
5.1 Albanian-Thessalian intermontane Basin 133
5.1.1 Middle Eocene (Lutetian) molasse 135
5.1.2 Middle Oligocene to Aquitanian molasse 135
5.1.3 Burdigalian to Langhian molasse 141
5.2 Librazhdi and Mati intermontane Basins 143
5.2.1 Lirazhdi intermontane Basin 143
1. The Librazhdi reddish Formation 143
2. The Goliku Formation 143
5.2.2 Mati intermontane Basin 144
5.3 Pliocene and Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene intermontane
mainly lake basins and sometimes marine ones 144
5.3.1 Pliocene and Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene intermontane lake
basins 145
1. Kolonja half-graben lake Basin 145

2. Devolli half-graben lake Basin 146
3. Ohrid graben lake Basin 147
4. Prespa graben lake Basin 147
5. Peshkopi graben lake Basin 147
6. Kukesi graben lake Basin 148
7. Tropoia graben lake Basin 148
5.3.2 Pliocene intermontane marine basins 148
1. Shkodra graben marine Basin 148
2. Kashnjeti graben marine Basin 149
5.4 Periadriatic foredeep Basin 149
5.4.1 Miocene molasse 149
a) Serravallian stage 149
b) Tortonian stage 150
c) Messinian stage 151
5.4.2 Pliocene molasse 151

5.4.3 Quaternary sediments 153

5.5 Butrinti Pliocene external Basin 154

6 Neotectonics and the seismicity of Albania (SH.ALIAJ) 155

6.1 Neotectonic (Pliocene-Quaternary) donation 156

6.2 Internal area of Alpine folding affected by extensional tectonics
since the Pliocene 158
6.3 External area of Alpine folding strongly affected by pre-Pliocene
compressional phases 161
6.4 Periadriatic Foredeep strongly affected by post-Pliocene
compressional movements 162
6.5 Pliocene-Quaternary Foreland 166

6.6 Convergence between the orogen and the Adria microplate 167

6.7 Peculiarities of seismicity 168

6.7.1 Seismicity in history 169

6.7.2 Instrumental seismicity 170

6.7.3 Some features of seismicity 172

6.8 Seismogenic zones 174

7 The geological evolution of Adbania (S. MECO & SH.ALLIAJ) 179

7.1 Palaeozoic evolution 179

7.2 Alpine evolution 183

7.2.1 The period of differentiation, development and erogenic
deformation of Mesozoic basins and platforms 183 The development of basins and platforms 185 Orogenetic deformation of basins and platforms 186

7.2.2 The period of establishing, developing and closing
of Tertiary molasse basins 187 The development of the Albanian-Thessalian Basin after the
establishment of the Krasta frontal thrust 187 The development of the Periadriatic Foredeep Basin and the Mati-
Librazhdi Basin after the establishment of the Ionian frontal thrust 189 The role of transverse tectonics in locating Tertiary molasse
basins 190

7.2.3 The period of Pliocene to Quaternary neotectonic strong uplift
and mountain formation 190
8 Mineral resources (S. MECO & SH.ALLIAJ) 193

8.1 Metallic minerals (Chromium, copper, iron, iron-nickeln and
nickel-silicate) 193

8.2 Non metallic minerals 196

8.2.1 Chemical mineral substances (Salt, sulphur, phosphcirites,
volcanic tuffs) 196
8.2.2 Metallurgical and fire-resistant minerals (olivinites, dolomites,
magnesite) 196
8.2.3 Technical minerals (Asbestos, talc) 197
8.2.4 Building material minerals 197 Decorative and ornamental stones (Marbles, decorative
limestones, etc.) 197 Filling mineral materials (Industrial limestones, sands
and gravels, etc.) 198 Industrial minerals for glass, ceramics, etc. (Quartzitic sands
and quartz, kaolins, clays) 199
8.3 Organic fuels 199
8.3.1 Oil and gas 199
8.3.2 Bitumen and bituminous substances 203
8.3.3 Coal 203 Oligocene-Lower Miocene coal-bearing basins 203 Upper Miocene coal-bearing basins 205 Pliocene coal-bearing basins 205
8.4 Groundwater 206
8.4.1 Groundwater and rocks 206 Porous aquifers 206 Karstic and fissured aquifers (including karstic and
moderately productive aquifers) 208 Local aquifers and non-productive rocks 209
8.4.2 Mineral waters 209
References 211
Geographic Index 233
Main geological names 241