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O. Kappelmeyer; Ralph Haenel:

Geothermics with special reference to application

Ed.: O. Rosenbach; C. Morelli

1974. X, 238 pages, 123 figures, 17x24cm, 720 g
Language: English

(Geoexploration Monographs, Number 4)

ISBN 978-3-443-13006-0, bound, price: 39.00 €

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Keywords

geoexplorationgeophysics

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Any geophysical phenomenon is connected in some way to geothermics. All movements within the earth are related to thermal events and all properties of the rocks depend on temperature. Geoscientific descriptions of any age, which often have been provoked by catastrophes like volcanic eruptions or by more amiable hot springs and gaseous exhalations, naturally deal also with geothermal phenomena.
The book describes the three modes in which heat can be exchanged (transfer by conductin, by convection and by radition), it discusses the thermal conditions of the earth's interior and crust and it looks at the practical application of geothermics. The last chapter deals with geothermal investigations in deep wells and is followed by tables, bibliography and subject index.

Table of Contents top ↑

Presentation VIII
Preface IX
1 Fundamental concept of heat transfer 1
1.1 Temperature 1
1.2 Heat 2
1.3 Storage of heat 2
1.4 Heat conduction 4
1.4.1 Heat conduction in isotropic solids 4
1.4.2 Heat conduction in anisotropic solids 6
1.4.3 Differential formulation of the equation of heat conduction 8
1.5 Heat radiation 11
1.6 Heat convection 14
1.7 Initial and boundary conditions 17
1.8 Dimensionless quantities 21
1.9 References 23
2 Thermal conditions of the earth’s interior 24
2.1 Speculations about thermal properties 24
2.2 Terrestrial energy sources 27
2.2.1 Heat from radioactivity 27
2.2.2 Gravity as a heat source 30
2.2.3 Heat sources of minor importance 30
2.3 Energy loss from the earth’s interior 31
2.3.1 Terrestrial heat flow 31
2.3.2 Heat loss by volcanism 38
2.3.3 Energy release from earthquakes 40
2.3.4 Comparison of the various kinds of terrestrial energy 41
2.4 Temperatures in the earth’s interior 42
2.4.1 Distribution of radioactive heat sources 42
2.4.2 Temperatures in the deep interior 45
2.5 References 50
3 Thermal conditions of the earth’s crust 51
3.1 Thermal properties of the crust 52
3.1.1 Thermal conductivity 52
3.1.2 Specific heat 58
3.1.3 Thermal difFusivity 59
3.2 Temperature and thermal processes in the crust 60
3.2.1 Underground temperatures in geothermally undisturbed areas 60
3.2.2 Deformations and magma intrusions in the crust 65
3.2.3 Physical processes and geological conditions in geothermal areas 73
3.2.4 Surface temperature and its influence upon the temperatures in the subsurfacc 83
3.2.5 Corrections for topography, sedimentation and denudation 95
3.3 Influence of technical operations 107
3.3.1 Temperature in mines 107
3.3.2 Temperature rise due to the disposal of radioactive wastes into the subsurface 117
3.4 References 122
4 Practical application of geothermics 124
4.1 Equipment 124
4.1.1 Thermometers 124
4.1.2 Thermal conductivity measurements 126
4.1.3 Calorimeter 130
4.1.4 Deep sea instruments 131
4.2 Exploration of geothermal power 134
4.2.1 Economics of geothermal energy 136
4.2.2 Study of surface manifestations 138
4.2.3 Geophysical surveys and investigations in shallow bore holes 141
4.2.4 Deep exploratory drilling 148
4.3 Groundwater and other hydrological problems 150
4.3.1 Naturally heated groundwater with special reference to prospecting for hot springs 150
4.3.2 Shallow aquifers 157
4.3.3 Submarine springs 161
4.3.4 Percolating dams 162
4.3.5 Leaking pipelines 164
4.4 Prospecting for miscellaneous deposits 166
4.4.1 Sulphide ores 166
4.4.2 Radioactive ores 169
4.4.3 Salt domes 171
4.4.4 Oil and gas accumulation 174
4.4.5 Geothermal brine deposits 176
4.5 References 181
5 Geothermal investigations in deep wells 182
5.1 Temperature disturbances due to drilling operations 183
5.2 Location of cement tops 188
5.3 Gas release in wells 190
5.4 Evaluation of hydraulic fracturing 194
5.5 Evaluation of acid treatment 195
5.6 Location of water entry 196
5.7 Location of lost circulation 197
5.8 Control of water injection 197
5.9 Correlation of geothermal gradients with rock formations 198
5.10 Hydrologie applications 199
5.11 References 202
6 Tables 203
6.1 List of symbols 203
6.2 Conversion tables 205
6.2.1 Length, area, volume, mass, weight, density and pressure 205
6.2.2 Thermal conductivity 205
6.2.3 Specific heat 206
6.2.4 Coefficient of heat transfer 206
6.2.5 Heat flow 207
6.2.6 Conversion of different energy units 207
6.2.7 Conversion factors for heat generation 206
6.3 Thermal properties of rocks from 0—50 °C 208
6.3.1 Igneous and volcanic rocks 208
6.3.2 Metamorphic rocks 210
6.3.3 Sediments 211
6.3.4 Minerals 211
6.4 Temperature effect on the thermal behaviour of rocks 212
6.4.1 Thermal conductivity 212
6.4.2 Specific heat 215
6.4.3 Thermal diffusivity 215
6.5 Change in thermal conductivity of rocks with pressure in one direction 216
6.6 Anisotropy of thermal conductivity of rocks 218
6.7 U, Th, K content and radiogenic heat generation of rocks 219
6.7.1 Ultramafic rocks 219
6.7.2 Igneous rocks 220
6.7.3 Sedimentary rocks and sediments 221
6.8 Thermal parameters of ice, water and dry air 222
6.8.1 Ice 222
6.8.2 Water 223
6.8.3 Dry air 224
6.9 References 225
Bibliography 226
Subject Index 235