cover

Albert Frey-Wyssling:

The Plant Cell Wall

3., completely rev. ed.

1976. XI, 294 pages, 193 figures, 27 tables, 20 plates, 17x24cm, 1000 g
Language: English

(Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, Band III / 4)

ISBN 978-3-443-14009-0, bound, price: 90.00 €

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Contents

Description English top ↑

This monograph on the «Plant Cell Wall» is the third edition on this topic published in the series «Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy». As far back as 1925 C. van Wisselingh wrote «Die Zellmembran» and 34 years later P. A. Roelofsen edited «The Plant Cell Wall». Both authors dealt with the current knowledge of their times on cell wall constituents and Roelofsen added the results of early electron microscopy. In this third revision emphasis is laid on biogenetic processes. Thus the extraplasmic ontogeny, growth and differentiation of this biological object are treated in the first part, followed by a second chapter on its biochemistry, and a third on biophysics of the cell wall. However, the recent biochemical work on cell wall constituents is so extensive that it can only be dealt with in a condensed form. In the biophysical chapter, some problems of wood technology are included.

The studying of cell walls is an old and vast science. Ever since Hooke created the term cell based on the microscopic structure of cork tissue in 1667, papers on the wall of plant cells have been published. Thus 300 years' development has lead to a very complex science, especially since there are not only so many biological aspects, but also technical points of view. A revision of only the most recent research schemes would lead to an incoherent enumeration of current problems, and no credit would be given to the endeavors of previous cell wall researchers. Therefore, this monograph attempts to treat the cell wall as a whole. It is conceived in the sense as outlined by K. Linsbauer when he established his «Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie».

It is evident that the necessarily restricted size of the book does not allow the presenting of all desirable details. Only the general lines can be traced, for a special study of which an ample bibliography, as complete as possible, is presented.

Of interest to every botanist, specialists in forestry, geographers, relevant research institutes, paleobotanists, institutes for applied botany, institutes for wood research, agricultural colleges, science libraries.

Contents top ↑

1 Ultrastructure and Biogenesis of the Cell Wall 1
1.1 Morphology 1
1.11 Lamellation 1
1.12 Matrix 1
1.13 Framework 2
1.2 Functions 2
1.21 Protection 2
1.22 Stabilization of the Cell Shape 3
1.23 Supporting Functions 3
1.3 Ontogeny 4
1.31 Middle Lamella 4
1.311 Cell Division 4
1.312 Maceration 5
1.313 Activity of Cell Organelles 6
1.32 Primary Wall (P-Wall) 7
1.321 Dispersed Textured Ultrastructure 8
1.322 Three-dimensional Cell Shape 10
Minimum Surface Area 10 - Cell Wall Folds 13
1.33 Secondary Wall(S-Wall) 14
1.331 ParallelTexturedUltrastructure 14
1.332 Fibrillation 16
Fiber Texture 16 - Helical Texture 18
1.333 Special Properties of Parallel Textured Walls 21
Ballooning 22 - Chemical Sectioning 23 - Permutoid Reactions 23 - Corrosion
Patterns 23
1.334 Layering 24
Multilamellate S-Wall 24 - Cross-lamellate S-Wall 25 - Collenchyma 37-
Three-layered S-Wall 27
1.34 TertiaryLamella(T-Wall) 29
1.341 Membranogenic Stratum 29
1.342 Warty Stratum 29
1.343 Absence of a Tertiary Lamella 31
1.35 Incrustation 31
1.351 Lignification 31
Lignification of the S-Wall 32 - Lignification of the Middle Layer 33-
Lignification as Irreversible Swelling 34 - Ultrastructure of the
Lignified Wall 34 - Biological Significance of Lignification 35
1.352 Formation of Colored Heartwood 36
1.353 Mineralization 37
Spodogram 37- Silification in Diatoms 38- Cystoliths 38- Calcium Oxalate 40
1.36 Adcrustation 41
1.361 Cuticularization 41
Interior Cuticle 42- Exterior Cuticle 42
1.362 Excretion of Waxes 43
1.363 Cutinization 44
Epidermis 44- Sporodermis 48
1.364 Suberization 49
Periderm 49- Suberized Excretion Cells 51- Endodermis 51
1.37 Summary of Cell Wall Structure 53
1.4 Morphogenesis 54
1.41 Differentiation 54
1.411 Plasmodesmata 54
1.412 Ectodesmata 55
1.413 Simple Pits 57
1.414 Bordered Pits 58
1.415 Vestured Pits 61
1.416 Protuberances 62
1.417 Cell Fusion 64
1.418 Dissolution of Cell Walls 65
1.42 Growth 66
1.421 Growth Types 66
1.422 Growth by Cell Division 67
1.423 Growth in Width 68
1.424 TipGrowth 69
Golgi Activity 69- Apical Reinforcement 70- Multi-Net Growth 70- The
Start of Tip Growth 71
1.425 Extension Growth 73
Osmotic Conditions 73- Ultratexture 74- Microtubules 76
1.426 Growth Hormones 77
Auxin 77- Gibberellin 80- Growth Protein 80- Enzymes 81- Ethylene 81
1.427 HelicalGrowth 81
1.428 Growth without Plasmic Contact 84
1.429 Cell Wall Regeneration 87
1.4210 Summary ofCellWallGrowth 87
2 Biochemistry of the Cell Wall 89
2.1 Cormophytes 89
2 .11 Framework Substances 89
2.111 Cellulose 89
Monomeric Compound 89- Polymerization 90- Biogenesis 91 - Bacterial
Cellulose 92- Cellulose I 92- Cellulose II 96- Antiparallelism 96-
Size of Ultrastructural Fibrils 97- Crystallinity 100 - Dissolution by
Complex Metal Ions 101 - Degradation by Cellulase 102- Identification
104- Occurrence 105
2.112 Fibrillar Associates of Cellulose 105
Xylan 106- Mannan B 106
2.12 Matrix Substances 107
2.121 Pectins 107
Chemistry 107 - Optics and Chain Lattice 109 - Gel Structure 109 -
Identification 110 - Pectin Enzymes 111 - Biogenesis 112
2.122 Hemicelluloses 113
Classification 113 - Framework and Matrix Substances 113 - Reserve
Substances 114-Amyloid 117
2.123 Callose 117
Occurrence 117 - Identification 117 - Chemistry 119 - Function 120
2.124 Mucilages and Gums 120
Occurrence and Identification 122 - Cellulose Slimes 122 - Pectic Slimes 122 -
Gums 123
2.125 Proteins 124
2.13 Incrustations 124
2.131 Lignin 124
Chemistry 124 -Identification 126-Optics 127-Occurrence 129-Biogenesis
129 - Biological Degradation 131
2.132 Heartwood Pigments 131
Chemistry 131 - Function of the Phenols 133
2.133 Mineral Substances 133
Calcium Salts 133 - Barium Sulphate 134 - Silica 134 - Iron and Manganese 134
2.14 Adcrustations 135
2.141 Extractable Lipids 135
Aliphatic Waxes 135 - Triterpenoid Waxes 140
2.142 Insoluble Lipids 140
Suberin 140 - Cutin 141 - Sporopollenin 142
2.2 Thallophytes 143
2.21 Algal CellWalls 143
2.211 Fibrillar Substances of the Algae 143
Cellulose 144 - Xylan 144 - Mannan 144
2.212 Matrix Substances of the Algae 145
Alginic Acid 145 - Laminarin 145 - Fucoidin 145
2.213 AlgalJellies 145
Nostoc Slime 145 - Agar 145 - Carragheen 146 - Jelly Prisms of the
Desmidiaceae 146 - Chlorophycean Slime 146
2.214 Glycoproteins 146
2.215 Mineral Substances 147
2.22 Fungal Cell Walls 1i7
2.221 Chitin 147
Chain Lattice 147 - Biosynthesis 148 - Identification 148 - Occurrence 148
2.222 Glucan - Peptide - Galactosamine Complex 150
2.223 Matrix Substances of the Fungi 150
Proteins 150 - Chitosan 150 - Mycodextran 150
2.224 Adcrustation and Incrustation of Fungal Walls 151
2.23 Yeast Cell Walls 151

2.231 Structural Carbohydrates 151
Chitin 151 - Glucan 152 - Mannan 152
2.232 Non-Carbohydrates 152
2.24 Prokaryotic Cell Walls 153
2.241 Cyanophytes 153
2.242 Bacteria and Actinomycetes 154
2.3 Summary of the Cell Wall Chemistry 156
3 Biophysics of the Cell Wall 158
3.1 X-Ray Analysis 158
3.11 Lattice Periodicities(Ring Diagram) 158
3.12 Evaluation of the Fiber Period (Fiber Diagram) 160
3.13 Evaluation of the Crystal Lattice of Cellulose 160
3.14 Evidence of Different Wall Textures (Sickle Diagram) 162
3.15 Determination of the Size of Crystallites 162
3.16 Determination of Crystallinity 165
3.17 Survey of X-Ray Analysis 166
3.18 Light Diffraction 166
3.2 Optics 167
3.21 Refraction 167
3.211 Light Line 167
3.212 Refractive Index 168
3.213 Molecular Refraction 169
3.214 Index Ellipses 170
3.215 Optical Dispersion 171
3.216 Dielectric Constant 172
3.22 Birefringence 172
3.221 Polarized Light 172
3.222 Extinction 174
3.223 Equation of Birefringence 175

3.224 Interference Colors 176
3.225 Compensators 178
Wedge-Shaped Compensator 178- Circular Compensator of Senarmont 178-
Elliptic Compensator of Brace and Kohler 179
3.226 Intrinsic Birefringence 180
Optical Determination of Wall Textures 180- Parallel Textures 180-
Dispersed Textures 180- Crossed Textures 182- Optical Determination of
the Thickness of the Wall 183- Birefringence Deficit 186
3.227 Form Birefringence 186
Principle 186- Ash Ghosts 188- Lignin Ghosts 189- Cellulose Fibers 190-
Chitin 191- Cutin Layers 192
3.228 Survey of Birefringence Phenomena 192
3.23 Light Absorption 193
3.231 Principle 193
3.232 Absorption Measurements in the Microscope 193
Microphotometer 193- Microdensitometer 193
3.233 UV-Absorption 194
UV-Absorption of Lignin 194- UV-Absorption of Cutinized Walls 194
3.24 Dichroism 195
3.241 Principle 195
3.242 Measurement of the Dichroism 196
3.243 Intrinsic Dichroism 197
3.244 Form Dichroism 198
3.25 Fluorescence 201
3.251 Principles 201
Fluorochromes 202
3.252 Primary and Secondary Fluorescence 202
3.253 Difluorescence 203
3.3 Density 204
3.31 Xerogels and Aerogels 204
3.32 Density Determination of Cellulose 205
3.33 Densities of Matrix and Incrustation Substances 207
3.34 Specific Gravity of Wood 208
3.35 Swelling and Shrinkage 209
3.351 Sorption of Water 209
Chemosorption 210- Hydration 210- Adsorption 210- Fiber Saturation
Point 211 - Capillary Condensation 211 - Water Sorption of Matrix
Substances and Lignin 212
3.352 AnisotropyofSwelling 213
Swelling of Fibers 213- Shrinkage of Wood 214
3.4 Strength 216
3.41 Tensile Strength 216
3.411 Principle 216
3.412 Fibers 216
3.413 Secondary Walls 216
3.414 Sclerenchyma and Collenchyma Strands 219
3.415 Primary Walls 219
3.416 Turgescence 221
Cell Extension 222
3.417 Bursting Strength of Leaves 224
3.42 Compressive Strength 225
3.421 Crushing Strength of Wood 225
3.422 Slip Planes 225
3.423 Instability of the Cell Shape 228
3.43 Bending Strength 229
3.44 Reaction Wood 231
3.441 Compression Tracheids 231
3.442 Tension Fibers 234
3.45 Mechanical Function of the Fibrils in the Cell Wall 234
3.5 Permeability 236
3.51 Perforated Cell Walls 236
3.52 Permeable CellWalls 237
3.53 SemipermeableCellWalls 238
3.531 Selective Permeability for Ions 240
3.532 Polar Permeability for Water 241
3.54 Survey of Permeability 241
Bibliography 243- Plates 261
Index of Authors 281- Index of Botanical Names 287- Index of Subjects 289-
Abbreviations and Symbols 292