cover

Ingrid Roth:

Fruits of Angiosperms

1977. XVI, 675 pages, 282 figures, 17x24cm, 1800 g
Language: English

(Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, Band X Teil 1)

ISBN 978-3-443-14010-6, bound, price: 148.00 €

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Keywords

fruit anatomyfruit studytropical fruitplant anatomyplant physiologyfood technology

Contents

English description top ↑

A general review of the anatomy of Angiosperms has long been lacking and, although this was originally planned for the Handbuch series, such a production has never been undertaken. This is all the more surprising, as fruits are of much importance in human life. The bibliography of fruit anatomy is in fact very sparse and mainly covers earlier publications. Even fruits of such economic importance as the cocoa pod and the coffee bean, for example, have been studied very little up to the present. Furthermore, anatomical fruit studies are often «hidden» in monographs, where they are difficult to find.

Nearly 800 citations from publications have been used in the compilation of this book. In addition, the work includes studies, especially of «tropical» fruits, made by the author himself, who has also done many of the drawings. The book contains many excellent photographs showing important details.

As for the text, general considerations are followed by a discussion of the tissues composing the fruits and accessory fruit parts and by a review of fruit dehiscence.

Some special dispersal structures are summarised in part G. The few developmental data available have been included in the respective chapters. To some extent, emphasis has been placed on economic aspects, mainly in the chapters dealing with fruit growth, maturation, senescence, texture and edibility of fruits, fruits of cultivated plants and polyploidy.

It is hoped, therefore, that this text, while written specifically for plant anatomists, will also interest plant physiologists, food technologists, pomologists and pharmacologists. Many views expressed in this book may stimulate further discussion. Much research work, especially on tropical fruits, is still required to extend our knowledge of fruit anatomy.

Of interest to every botanist, food technologists, pharmacologists, specialists in forestry, paleobotanists, relevant research institutes, institutes for applied botany, institutes for wood research, agricultural colleges, science libraries.

Contents top ↑

Contents
A. General part 1
1 The concept "fruit" 1
1.1 Definition of the fruit 1
1.2 Classification of fruits 1
2 The carper 6
3 Fruit symmetry 8
4 The pericarp 9
4.1 Definition of exo-, mesa-, endocarp 9
5 Relation between anatomical structure and functions of the pericarp 11
6 Fruit growth 12
6.1 Growth stimulation 13
6.2 Cell division 14
6.3 Cell enlargement 15
6.4 Periods of growth 16
6.5 Cell size in relation to fruit size 19
7 Meristems and fruit growth 21
8 Cell and tissue differentiation 26
9 Cell contents 27
10 Maturation 30
11 Senescence 33
12 Texture and edibility of fruits 34
13 Pattern formation 37
Outer epidermis 37, Inner epidermis 37, Interwoven pattern 38,
Formation of radial cell rows 38, Starlike arrangement of cells 38,
Giant cells 38

B. Tissues composing the pericarp 39
14 Epidermis 39
14.1 Outer epidermis 39, Shape of epidermal cells 41, Cell wall structure 41, Cutine and wax formations 42, Cell contents 42,
Multiseriate outer epidermis 42
14.2 Inner epidermis 44, Multiseriate inner epidermis 47,
Differentiation of the endocarp 48
14.3 Stomata 49, Occurrence of stomata 51, Stomata distribution and density 52, Stomata development 54, Anomalous stoma formation and reduction of stomata 54, Function of stomata 57
14.4 Trichomes 57
Shape of trichomes (unicellular hairs, pluricellular hairs) 57, Internal or locular hairs 60, Development of hairs 62, Density of hairs 62, Systematic value of hairs 63, Function of hairs 63
14.5 Emergences 65
15 Periderm and lenticel formation 66
16 Hypodermis 69
17 Parenchyma 70
17.1 Special cell arrangements and cell patterns 71
17.2 Aerenchyma 73
17.3 Air containing parenchyma 73
17.4 Cell contents 74
18 Collenchyma 74
19 Sclerenchyma 75
19.1 Sclereids 77, Cell shape 77, Distribution of sclereids 79, Special stone cell patterns in Solanaceae 80, Taxonomic and phylogenetic value of stone cell concretions 80, Transitional forms between sclereids and fibers or parenchyma cells 82
19.2 Fibers 82, Shape of fibers 83, Distribution and arrangement of fibers 83, Origin and differentiation of stone cells and fibers 86
20 Vascular system 87
21 Secretory structures 93
21.1 External secretory structures 93, Nectaries hydathodes, glandular hairs 93
21.2 Internal secretory structures 94, Secretory cells 94, Secretory cavities 95, Secretory canals 96, Laticifers 97
C. Structures beyond the pericarp 98
22 Placentae and septs 98
22.1 Placentae and septs as sources of pulp formation 98
22.2 False partition walls and seed pockets 100
23 The inferior ovary 100
24 The fruits of cacti 106
25 Accessory fruit parts 118
25.1 Sterile projections of the gymnoecium ("Grannen") 119
25.2 Receptacle 121
25.3 Sepals 122, Pappus 126
25.4 Petals 128, Anthocarps 128
25.5 Stamens 131
25.6 Fruit scales 131
25.7 Prophylls 131
25.8 Pedicel and peduncle of the fruit 132
25.9 Parts of the inflorescence 142, Inflorescence axis 142, Glumes spikelets 142, Subtending bracts 146, Involucral bracts of inflorescences 146
D. Fruit dehiscence 148
26 Types of dehiscence 148
26.1 General considerations 148
26.2 Ventricidal ("marginicidal") dehiscence 152
26.3 Septicidal dehiscence 153
26.4 Loculicidal dehiscence 153
26.5 Dehiscence of the legume 156
26.6 Pore capsule 163
26.7 Circumscissile dehiscence 166, Pyxidia which develop sclerenchyma and a zone of mechanical weakness 166, Pyxidia which dehisce by formation of meristematic cells in combination with lignified cells 168
27 Mechanisms of dehiscence 171
27.1 Hygroscopic mechanisms 171, Xerochasy 172, Hygrochasy 175
27.2 Turgor mechanisms 181, alte Spluttermechanisms (Spritzmechanismen) 181, Throwing mechanisms of turgescent fleshy fruits (Schleudermechanismen) 182, Lever catapults (Hebelschleudern) 182,
Cyclanthera exploders 182, Impatiens 182, Cardamine 184, Corydalis
184, Lathraea 184, Squeezing catapults (Quatschschleudern) 185,
Dorstenia 185, Arccuthohium 185, Pushing catapults (Stoßßschleudern) 187, Polygonum 187
28 Indehiscent fruits with delayed dehiscence 187
E. Types of fruits 191
29 The dehiscent fruit: the capsule sensu lato 191
29.1 General considerations 191
29.2 Special examples 194, Solanaceae 197, Caryophyllaceae 200, The legume 203, Vascular anatomy 209, Development 210, Formation of the "seed-cushion" 210, Formation of false septs 212, Follicular types with ventricidal dehiscence only 215, Evolutionary trends in fruit development of Leguminosae 216, Cruciferae (Silique and silicle) 218, Acanthaceae 225, Scrophulariaceae 228, Orchidaceae 231, Liliaceae 231, Linum usitatissimum 233, Fleshy capsules 235, Myristica fragrang (the nutmeg) 235, Punica granatum (the pomegranate) 239, Scyphostegia borneensis 244
30 The indehiscent sclerocarpium: the nut 244
30.1 The nut sensu stricto 246
30.2 The achene 258, The genus Centaurea 261, Distribution of the parenchyma in the pericarp 264, The aerenchyma 266, The sclerenchyma 267, The "carbon layer" ("Kohleschicht") or black pigment layer 270,
The hypodermic 271, Secretory structures 273, Cell contents 273,
Formation of intercellular spaces 274, The epidermis 274, Slime cells 276, Slime trichomes 277, Twin hairs and other trichomes 278, Periderm 280, Emergences 281, Vascular system 281, The apical plate 281, The receptacle of the inflorescence 283, The integument 284, Structure of the pappus 284, Chaffy bracts and involucral leaves 286, The abscission region 287, Heterocarpous inflorescences 290, Taxonomic significance of the pericarp structure 290
30.3 The caryopsis of Gramineae 291, General structure 291, Zea mays 293, Pericarp development 296, Semipermeable membrane 304, Bracts (glumes and palets) taking part in fruit formation 307
30.4 The schizocarpium of Umbelliferae 311, General pericarp structure 313, The schizocarpium of Hydrocotyloideae 314, Secretory spaces 318, Interpretation of the inferior ovary 320, The carpophore 320,
Classification based on fruit anatomy 324, Evolutionary trends of the schizocarp and derivation from fruits of Araliaceae 325
30.5 The mericarps or outlets ("Klausen") of Boraginaceae 330
30.6 The mericarps or outlets ("Klausen") of Labiatae 336
30.7 Anacardium occidentals 344
30.8 Winged fruits (samaras) 358
31 The fleshy-stony indehiscent fruit: the drupe (sarco-sclerocarpium) 368
31.1 General characteristics 368
31.2 Zonation of meso- and endocarp 372
31.3 The Prunus fruits 374, Prunus domestica (The plum) 374, Prunus cerasus (The sour cherry) 376, Prunus persich (The peach) 378,
Vascular system 379, Cell contents 379, Tissue texture 380,
Size and form of fruits 380, Growth periods 381
31.4 Species of Rubus 381, Rubus idaeus (Red raspberry) 381,
Rubus fruticosus (Black raspberry) 383, Rubus strigosus (American red raspberry) 383
31.5 Olea europaea (The olive) 386
31.6 Coffea arabica, canephora (The coffee) 388
31.7 Cocos nucifera (The coconut) 400
31.8 Other palm fruits 412
31.9 Casimiroa edulis (The white sapote) 420
31.10 Mangifera indica (The mango) 421
31.11 Ribes (Saxifragaceae) 423
31.12 Fruits of Ericaceae: Vaccinium, Gaylussacia 423
31.13 Symphoricarpus rivularis (cit. S. racemosus)
31.14 Juglandaceae 425
32 The fleshy indehiscent fruit: the berry (sarcocarpium) 431
32.1 General characteristic 431
32.2 Types of berries 433, Ribes 433, Phoenix dactylifera (The date) 434, Achras zapota (The sapote) 435, Persea Americana (The avocado) 445,
Solanaceae 451, General characteristics 451, Lycopersicon esculentum (The tomato) 454, Capsicum annuum (The red Pepper) 457,
Musa acuminate and balloisiana-cultivars (The banana) 461, Fruits of Cucurbitaceae (Type: Pepo) 471, Exocarp 472, Cork formation 475,
Mesocarp 475, Endocarp 477, Vascular bundles 477, Carica papaya
(The paw paw) 477, Anatomy of the ripe fruit 480, Development of the fruit 480, Theobroma cacao (The Cacao) 483, Development of the fruit 483, Anatomy of the mature fruit 489, Species of Citrus (Type: hesperidium) 494, General structure of the Citrus fruit 494,
Development of the Citrus fruit 502, Cell contents 511,
Other members of Rutaceae 516, Loranthaceae 517,
The clove (dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum or Eugenia
caryo phyllata 519
33 Aggregate fruits and apocarpous gynoecia 522
33.1 Ranunculaceae 522
33.2 Annonnaceae 524, Annone cherimola (The cherimoya) 524,
Morphology 524, Anatomy 526, Outer epidermis 526, Mesocarp 526, Inner epidermis 526, Vascular anatomy 526, Cell contents 527
33.3 Rosaceae 527, Fragaria s(The strawberry) 530, Rosa 531,
The pome fruits 533, Malus sylvestris (The apple) 533,
Vascular pattern of the apple flower 533, Histogenesis 540,
Histology of the ripe apples 540, Epidermis 540, Cork and lenticels 541, Hypodermis 543, Fruit flesh 543, Endocarp 543, Calyx 543,
Texture of flesh and air spaces 543, Cell contents 543,
Growth rate, cell size and cell number 544, Fruit abscission 546,
Pyrus communis (The pear) 546, Vascular supply 546, Histogenesis 546, Histology 548, Outer epidermis 548, Cork formation 548, Hypodermis 55O,Flesh 550, Sclereid differentiation 550, Endocarp 550, Growth rate 552
33.4 The pseudo-apocarpous fruit of Ochna 552
34 Infrutescences (collective or multiple fruits) 553
34.1 Ananas comosus (The pineapple) 553
34.2 Artocarpus altilis (the bread fruit) and related species 557
34.3 Ficus cariaca and related species (The fig) 560
Fruit abscission 565
Special dispersal structures and heterodiaspory 572
35 Elaiosomes 572
36 Floating fruits 579
36.1 Floating tissue without air spaces 579
36.2 Floating tissue in the form of aerenchyma 581
36.3 Floating bladders filled with air 582
36.4 Floating tissue developed outside the pericarp 582
36.5 Protective layers of floating fruits 582
37 Pneumatocarpia and flying organs 583
37.1 Pneumatocarpia 583
37.2 Flying organs with airspaces 585
37.3 Hairs serving as flying organs 585
38 Dispersal organs in the form of hooks or burs 587
39 Heterodiaspory 587
39.1 Heterocarpy 591, Heterocarpous Compositae 594, Heterocarpy in other families 597
39.2 Amphicarpy 597
39.3 Heterocarpidy 598
39.4 Heteromericarpy 598
39.5 Seed pockets 599
H. Taxonomic use of the pericarp structure 600

I. Phylogeny of the fruit 603
General view 603
Special examples 605
K. Fruits of cultivated plants and polyploidy 609
Bibliography 615
Index of authors 643
Index of latin plant and animal names 649
General index 666