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Ingrid Roth:

Structural patterns of tropical barks

1981. XVI, 609 pages, 282 figures, 17x24cm, 1800 g
Language: English

(Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, Band IX / 3)

ISBN 978-3-443-14012-0, bound, price: 148.00 €

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Keywords

tropicalpatternstructurebarkenyclopediaplanttropischMusterStrukturRindeEnzyklopädie

Contents

English description top ↑

Although there exists an enormous bibliography on wood anatomy, detailed studies of bark structure and especially of tropical barks, are very scarce and only deal with certain genera and species. Very little is known about the general bark structure in tropical trees, whether it is relatively uniform or diversified, and if it is subject to environmental factors; nothing is known of growth increments in tropical barks. Little is known of the bark structure of certain families and a comparison of bark structure from the taxonomic point of view is missing completely. It is unknown, whether bark structure may be used for identification in the field. Even the chemical composition of tropical barks is only little studied.

The main purpose of these studies was, therefore, to relate structural observations with taxonomic aspects, on the one hand, and with ecological considerations, on the other. By studying one family after the other (see ROTH, earlier publications), it was attempted to elaborate family characteristics in bark structure for anatomical and taxonomic use; to consider relations between outer bark appearance and inner structure; to facilitate tree identification in the field by observation of the gross anatomy; to study environmental influences on bark structure.

A comparative survey of the ecological aspects revealed certain structural bark properties which may be interpreted as «adaptations» to a certain environment through selection. The principal result of these studies, however, culminates in the observation of an enormous richness of structures, forms, and patterns in the barks of tropical trees.

Some phylogenetic aspects respited from developmental studies as well as from a comparison of more primitive families with more advanced ones. A very extensive material was studied for the first time in a comparative way, following different main lines of interest, a large program lies still ahead of us: intensification of the studies and extension to a much larger number of species from very different environments in order to prove or abandon certain hypotheses presented in this book. Many of the tropical barks are also of economic interest and used in pharmacy or in the manufacturing industry.

It is hoped that the book will be used by plant anatomists, ecologists, taxonomists, forestry engineers and all people interested in the special properties of tropical barks.

All the illustrations included, drawings as well as photographs, are originals.

Contents top ↑

Introduction 1
Material and methods 2
Sample collection 2
Preparation of permanent slides 4
A word on plant identification in the Tropics 6
On the origin of vulgar and some "Latin" plant names 7
A. General observations 11
1. The concept of "bark" 11
1.1 Definition of cortex and bark 11
1.2 Definition of soft best and hard best 12
1.3 Definition of inner, middle and outer bark 13
1.4 Definition of the rhytidome 13
2. Criteria of bark characterisation 16
B. Tissues composing the bark 18
1. Sieve elements 18
1.1 General considerations 18
1.2 Patterns produced by sieve tube arrangement 19
1.3 Especially large sieve elements 20
2. Phloem parenchyma 21
2.1 The common phloem parenchyma 21
2.2 Specialized parenchyma types 25
2.3 Parenchyma distribution 27
2.4 Crystalliferous parenchyma 28
2.5 Storage parenchyma 30
3. Mechanical system 31
3.1 Fibers 33
3.2 Sclereids 38
3.2.1 Hard best sclereids 38
3.2.2 Stone cells of the dilatation tissue 47
3.2.3 Sclerenchyma and crystal formation 47
3.2.4 General hard best arrangement 50
4. Secretory system 50
4.1 General aspects 50
4.2 Types of secretory structures S2
4.3 Secretory cells and cavities 54
4.4 Secretory canals 57
4.4.1 Size of secretory canals 58
4.4.2 Peculiarities of secretory canals 60
4.4.3 Frequency of secretory canals 63
4.4.4 Spatial expansion of secretory canals 65
4.5 Intercommunicating systems of secretory cells 66
4.6 Content of secretory cells 69
4.7 Site of exudation 70
4.8 Periodicity of exudation 71
5. Phloem rays 71
5.1 Ray width 71
5.2 Homo- and heterogeneity of rays 73
5.3 Frequency of rays 73
5.4 Some peculiarities of rays 73
5.5 Aggregate and fusion rays 75
5.6 Physiology of rays 76
5.7 Patterns produced by rays 76
5.8 Secondary formation of stone cells in the rays 79
5.9 Storied ray structure 80
5.10 Special examples 80
5.11 Special structures and inclusions in the rays 82
5.12 Ray dilatation and dilatation meristems 83
6. Storied structure 84
7. Periderm 86
7.1 Cork or phellem 88
7.1.1 Cork width 88
7.1.2 Composing cell types 88
7.1.3 Arrangement of cells 94
7.1.4 Cork prickles 98
7.2 Phelloderm 102
7.2.1 Phelloderm width 102
7.2.2 Cell components 102
7.2.3 Arrangement of cells 104
7.2.4 Periodic increments 106
7.2.5 Relations between cork and Phelloderm 107
7.2.6 Phylogenetic view points 109
7.2.7 Function of the Phelloderm 111
7.3 Lenticels 112
7.3.1 Outer appearance, frequency, distribution 112
7.3.2 Inner structure 113
8. Rhytidome 116
8.1 Rhytidome formation 116
8.2 Course of the periderms 116
8.3 Number of developing periderms 119
8.4 Rhytidome width 120
8.5 Composing elements 121
8.6 Periodic increments 122
8.7 Permanence of cork and phelloderm on the bark 123
8.8 Periodicity of periderm formation 125
8.9 Relations between outer aspect and inner structure of the
rhytidome 126
C. Relations between outer bark aspect and inner structure 129
1. Color 129
2. Lenticels 130
3. Outer bark pattern 130
4. Cork prickles and other marks 132
5. Consistence of the bark 132
6. General considerations 133
D. Function of the bark in relation to structure 140
E. Changes in the non-conducting phloem 140
1. Sieve tube collapse and parenchyma "inflation" 145
2. Dilatation growth 148
3. Secondary formation of stone cells 153
4. Other changes 158
F. Special part 159
1. Description of the studied families 159
Annonaceae 160
Capparidaceae 163
Flacourtiaceae 165
Vochysiaceae 171
Guttiferae 175
Quiinaceae 183
Caryocaraceae 183
Bombacaceae 185
Sterculiaceae 190
Tiliaceae 192
Elaeocarpaceae 197
Humiriaceae 201
Rutaceae 203
Simaroubaceae 206
Burseraceae 208
Meliaceae 213
Dichapetalaceae 218
Olacaceae 218
Opiliaceae 219
Celastraceae 221
Rhamnaceae 226
Sapindaceae 230
Sabiaceae 235
Anacardiaceae 235
Mimosaceae 241
Genus Inga 242 - Genus Pithecelloloium 244 - Genus Stryphnodendron 246 -
Genus Parkia 247 - Genus Enterolohium 249
Caesalpiniaceae 251
Papilionaceae 261
Pterocarpus 265 - Lonchocarpus 268 - Clathrotropis 271 - Andira 273-
Ormosia 273 - Centrolohium paraense 275 - Alexa imperatricis 276 - Dipteryx odorata 278 - Swartzia schomburgkii 278 - Platymiscium pinnatum 279 - Diplotropispurpurea 279 - Hymenolobiam 281 - Machaerium 281 - "Roble blanco" 283 - General conclusions concerning bark structure of
Papilionaceae 283 - Comparison between the three families of Leguminosae 285
Rosaceae 286
Rhizophoraceae 295
Combretaceae 297
Myrtaceae 300
Lecythidaceae 308
Melastomaceae 312
Araliaceae 315
Rubiaceae 317
Sapotaceae 326
Genus Pouteria 327 - Other genera 329
Apocynaceae 333
Boraginaceae 338
Bignoniaceae 340
Verbenaceae 343
Nyctaginaceae 347
Polygonaceae 348
Myristicaceae 351
Lauraceae 355
Hernandiaceae 360
Euphorbiaceae 361
Species with a stratified secondary phloem 364, Species with alternating
lenticular hard best plates 365, Species with scattered solitary fibers 370
Moraceae 375
Lacistemaceae 382
Families with the same structural peculiarities 382
Families with a very regular bark structure 383
Families with secretory canals 384
2. Tables of studied families 386
Annonaceae 387 - Capparidaceae 387 - Flacourtiaceae 388 - Vochysiaceae 388 - Guttiferae 389 - Quiinaceae 390 - Caryocaraceae 390 - Bombacaceae 390 - Sterculiaceae 390 - Tiliaceae 390 - Elaeocarpaceae 391 - Humiriaceae 391 - Rutaceae 391 - Simaroubaceae 392 - Burseraceae 392 - Meliaceae 393 - Dichapetalaceae 394 - Olacaceae 394 - Opiliaceae 394 - Celastraceae 394 - Rhamnaceae 394 - Sabiaceae 394 - Sapindaceae 395 - Anacardiaceae 395 - Mimosaceae 396 - Caesalpiniaceae 398 - Papilionaceae 400 - Rosaceae 402 - Rhizophoraceae 403 - Combretaceae 403 - Myrtaceae 404 - Lecythidaceae 405 - Melastomaceae 406 - Araliaceae 406 - Rubiaceae 407 - Sapotaceae 408 - Apocynaceae 409 - Boraginaceae 410 - Bignoniaceae 411 - Verbenaceae 411 - Nyctaginaceae 412 - Polygonaceae 412 - Myristicaceae 412 - Hernandiaceae 412 - Lauraceae 413 - Euphorbiaceae 414 - Moraceae 416 - Lacistemaceae 416
3. Preparation of a key for the identification of families, genera and
species 417
G. Characters of taxonomic importance in bark structure 422
1. Keys and classifications 422
1.1 Key to sclerenchyma distribution 422
1.2 Ray types 424
1.3 Disposition of secretory cells, cavities and canals 424
1.4 Disposition of canal sheath parenchyma 424
1.5 Disposition of crystals 425
1.6 Lenticel frequency and distribution 425
2. Composition and arrangement of the hard best 425
3. Other criteria of taxonomic use 443
4. Taxonomic importance of the rays 452
5. Periderm properties of taxonomic value 455
5.1 Cork 455
5.2 Phelloderm 457
5.3 Lenticels 458
5.4 Number of periderms 460
5.5 Rhytidome structure 462
5.6 General observations 463
H. Ecological aspects 466
1. Total bark width 466
2. Rhvtidome width 471
3. Cork width 472
4. Phelloderm width 473
5. Inner bark width 475
6. General discussion of bark width and habitats 477
7. Ecological formations of importance in these studies 482
8. Relations between structural characteristics of the bark and
special habitats 484
9. General conclusions 487
10. Comparison of the number of species and number of individuals in the humid
forest of Venezuelan Guayana 490
11. Growth ring formation in the bark 492
11.1 Considerations on growth ring formation 492
11.2 Special examples of growth ring formation in the bark 497
11.3 General conclusions 506
12. Barks from trees of other, mostly drier habitats 511
12.1 Special examples 511
12.2 General conclusions 538
I. Phylogenetic aspects 546
K. The main patterns in bark formation and their origin 560
1. Pattern formation through growth activities in the cambium 560
2. Pattern formation through dilatation growth 561
3. Formation of horizontal stories 561
4. Occurrence of net-like patterns 562
5. The ontogenetic sequence 562
6. The tendency to transform irregular patterns into regular ones by
"synergetic" processes 562
7. Repetition 563
8. Pattern formation by combination of different elements 563
L. Economic bark utilization 565
Bibliography 572
Author index 589
Index of scientific plant names 593
Index of vernacular plant names 602
Subject index 606