cover

Ella Werker:

Seed Anatomy

1997. XII, 424 pages, 171 figures, 2 tables, 17x24cm, 1190 g
Language: English

(Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, Band X / 3)

ISBN 978-3-443-14024-3, bound, price: 102.00 €

out of print

BibTeX file

Keywords

seedplantanatomymaturationgerminationSamePflanzeAnatomieReifungKeimung

Contents

English description top ↑

On 400 pages, the author gives a comprehensive survey not only of seed anatomy, including shape, size, weight and colouring of seeds, but also treats the very variable surface structures, seed and embryo proportions and relations, their nutritive tissues and the manifold reserve materials. She furthermore refers to the function of the seed coat and the advantages of sculpturing, as well as to the secretory structures in the seed, the vascularization and the passage of the nutrients.
Seed maturation and desiccation followed by abscission are discussed as well as longevity and dormancy of seeds, the manifold ways of seed dispersal, germination and mobilization of reserve materials. The author thus intimately relates anatomy with physiological processes.
Werker's text is not only of interest for plant-anatomists and morphologists, but is equally of great importance for physiologists, ecologists, as well as for teachers and students of biology, forestry and agriculture. 171 figures (photographs and drawings) of best quality accompany the interesting text. Finally, the reader finds an exhaustive bibliography on 47 pages.
This excellent work is an encyclopedic reference indispensable for anybody who is interested in seeds.

Review: Quart. Rev. Biol. 74(2), 1999, p.231 top ↑

This series, devoted to plant structure, has included classic volumes by Esau on phloem, Martens on Gnetales, and Roth on fruit structure. This volume is the latest contribution to that series. In contrast to earlier monographs on the seeds of flowering plants by Netolitzky and Corner that had a taxonomic focus, Werker's treatment is organized to combine a roll call of structures with discussion of life history roles. She provides an extensive review of seed morphological and surface features, which have important application in plant biology.

For my own interests, one of the greatest values of the book is that it will provide systematists with a resource they can use for better understanding and characterizing the morphological diversity of seeds. A highly significant facet of the book is its treatment of life history aspects of seeds, including topics such as desiccation, dispersal, dormancy and longevity.
Given the recent emphasis on the physiology and molecular biology of processes such as dormancy, it is refreshing to have Werker's review of structures that play a role in the life history events of seeds.

Most of the examples discussed are from economically important families, such as Fabaceae and Poaceae, but data from a wide variety of angiosperms are included. Her review, however, is not taxonomically comprehensive -- one cannot pick a favored family and expect to find its seeds discussed.
The book is well written and very concise; the text is supplemented by numerous simple line drawings and high~uality micrographs. Werker has provided an exceptionally valuable volume that will have broad application in future investigations of seeds.

Larry Hufford, Marion Owabey Herbanum and Botany, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 74(2),1999 p. 231

Review: The Canadian Field-Naturalist vol. 113, p. 546 top ↑

This volume represents another significant contribution in the Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie series. Werker's review of the angiosperm seed is encyclopedic, touching on aspects such as functional seed anatomy and morphology, embryology, physiology, dormancy, and germination. The volume is well written and concise, with excellent line drawings, spectacular figures, and a comprehensive reference list. I was delighted to see that the concept of anatomical and morphological varation was recognized and discussed throughout the volume. The no-nonsense style in which the volume is written and presented allows the reader to obtain information quickly and efficiently. Discrepancies were few and trivial; however, the notion that large seeds of arboreal taxa are primitive and small seeds of herbaceous taxa advanced conflicts with current thinking on the origin of the angiosperms. For those readers familiar with seed anatomy and morphology, the terminology is not overwhelming, but a glossary would have been a nice touch. The only problem that I was able to identify was the lack of a standardized terminology. While such problems are common in most botanical disciplines, this book would have been the appropriate venue to deal with some of these etymological inconsistencies. Although its cost is prohibitive for most undergraduate and graduate students, I highly recommend this volume for anyone working or beginning to work on agiosperm seed anatomy and morphology. Ben. A. Le Page The Canadian Field-Naturalist vol. 113, p. 546

Contents top ↑

1 Preface V

2. Introduction 1
2. Morphological characteristics of seeds 2
2.1 Shape 3
2.11 Types of seed shape 3
2.12 Factors determining seed shape 3
2.13 Function 8
2.2 Size and weight 8

2.21 Interspecific variation in seed size 8
2.22 Intraspecific variation in seed size and weight 9
2.23 Factors affecting seed weight 10
2.3 Colouring 10
2.31 Function of colour 10
2.32 Variations in colour 11
2.33 Pigments and other colour-attributing factors 13
2.331 Types 13
2.332 Location (Colour of the seed coat - Colour of the embryo and endosperm
- Colour of special seed structures and appendages) 13
2.34 Timing of colouring 20
13. Seed surface 22
13.1 Surface topography 23

13.11 Patterns caused by inner seed coat layers 40
13.12 Factors outside the seed influencing surface sculpturing 40
3.13 Complex patterns 41
3.14 Differences in surface sculpturing around a seed 44
3.15 Advantages in sculpturing of the seed surface 44
3.16 Surface sculpturing as an aid in taxonomy 44
3.2 Specialized structures of the surface 45
3.21 Stomata 45
3.211 Structure 47
3.212 Development 52
3.213 Function 52
3.22 Trichomes 54
3.221 Number and location of trichomes 56
3.222 Hair length 59 8
3.223 Hair structure 61
3.224 Hair development (Hair development by splitting of cells -
Hair development hv partial disintegration of cell walls) 63
3.225 Function of hairs 65
4. Seed desiccation 65
4.1 Desiccation-tolerant seeds 65
4.11 Pathways of water loss 66
4.12 Factors involved in seed tolerance to desiccation 67
4.121 Timing of water loss 67
4.122 Amount of reserve materials 67
4.123 Water content 68
4.13 Seed coat desiccation 68
4.131 Seeds with fleshy tissues 68
4.14 Desiccation of endosperm and perisperm 69
4.15 Embryo desiccation 69
4.16 Desiccation of seeds in fleshy fruits 70
4.2 Desiccation-intolerant seeds 71
4.21 Recalcitrant seeds 71
4.22 Vivipary 72
5. Longevity 72
5.1 The role of seed coat in seed longevity 73
5.2 Changes that lead to the loss of viability 74
5.21 Damage to reserve tissues 75
6. Funiculus and seed abscission 75
6.1 Funiculus 75
6.11 Funicular morphology 75
6.12 Funicular anatomy 77
6.121 Vasculature 78
6.13 Functions of the funiculus 79
6.14 Funicular modifications 80
6.2 Seed abscission 83
Seed coat 84
7.1 Functions of the seed coat 85
7.2 Seed coat development 86
7.21 Integumental growth 89
7.22 Differentiation 90
7.23 Seed coat thickening 91
7.24 Rate of development 94
7.25 Endothelium 94
7.3 The mature seed coat 95
7.31 Variations within the seed coat around the seed 97
7.32 Viability of seed coat cells 98
7.33 Types of seed coat tissues 98
7.331 Protective structures (Cell wall and cell lumen materials -
Seed coat cuticles - A layer of compressed cells -Wall
thickenings - Crystals) 98
7.332 Sarcotesta (The fleshy layer - Protective layer of the sarco-
testal seed) 121
7.333 Aerenchyma 126
7.334 Chlorenchyma 127
7.335 The seed coat as a reserve tissue 127
7.336 Undifferentiated or degenerated seed coats 128
7.4 Seeds devoid of a seed coat 128
7.5 Specialized structures of the seed coat 129
7.51 The micropyle 129
7.52 The hilum 133
7.53 The rapine 133
7.54 The chalaza 134
7.55 Strophiole and lens 136
7.56 Pleurogram 136
8. Vasculature and passage of nutrients 138
8.1 Seed coat vascular system 138
8.11 Structure 138
8.12 Location 142
8.13 Phylogeny 142
8.14 Function 145
8.15 Degree of differentiation 145

8.16 Composition 146
8.2 Vascular structures supplementary to the main vascular system 147
8.21 Scattered or sheath-like tracheidal cells 147
8.22 Tracheid bar 147
8.3 Nucellar vasculature 149
8.4 Passage of nutrients from the vascular system to the embryo sac 150
8.41 Transport through the seed coat and nucellus 151
8.42 Transport from the maternal tissues into the embryo sac 154
8.43 Transfer cells 155
9. Embryo 157
9.1 Embryo location within the seed 160
9.11 Position of the embryo 160
9.2 Embryo morphology 161
9.21 Embryo size 161
9.22 Embryo shape 163
9.23 The cotyledons 170
9.231 Shape of dicotyledonous cotyledons 170
9.232 Number of cotyledons 172
9.24 Classification of the mature embryo 174
9.25 Embryo vasculature 174
9.26 Degree of differentiation of the embryo 176
9.261 Highly differentiated embryos (The monocotyledonous embryo) 176
9.262 Underdeveloped embryos 182
9.263 Modifications in parasitic plants 183
9.3 Embryo cytology 183
9.4 Chlorophyll in the embryo 184
9.5 The embryo as a reserve organ 185
10. Nutritive tissues 185
10.1 Endosperm 188
10.11 Function 188
10.12 Endosperm development 189
10.121 Polyploidy 191
10.13 The mature endosperm 192
10.131 Amount 192
10.132 Cell structure 193
10.133 Reserve materials 193
10.134 Viability 193
10.135 Crystals 194
10.136 Types of endosperm in the mature seed (Fleshy endosperm
-Thick-walled endosperm - Fluidy endosperm - Mucilagi-
nous endosperm- Ruminated endosperm) 194
10.14 Differential development within the endosperm 197
10.141 Transfer cells 197
10.142 Aleurone layer (Endosperm derived aleurone layer- Non-
endospermic aleurone layer) 199
10.2 Nucellus 201
10.21 Nucellus in the developing seed 201
10.211 The hypostase (Functions) 202
10.212 The epistase 207
10.22 Nucellus in the mature seed - perisperm 208
10.221 Reserve materials of the perisperm 208
10.222 Viability 209
10.223 Structure 209
11. Reserve materials 209
11.1 Timing of reserve materials accumulation 210
11.2 Proteins 210
11.21 Structure 211
11.211 Inclusions in protein bodies (Crystal globoids - Soft glob-
oids - Crystalloids - Crystals) 211
11.212 Intraspecific polymorphism of protein bodies 220
11.213 Amorphous reserve protein 222
11.22 Development of reserve protein 222
11.221 Protein bodies (Mode of formation - Accumulation of pro-
tein in the protein body - Polyploidy) 222
11.222 Development of the amorphous reserve protein 225
11.3 Lipids 225
11.31 Development of oil bodies 226
11.4 Carbohydrates 227
11.41 Starch 227
11.411 Starch as a temporary reserve material 227
11.412 Starch in the mature seed 227
11.413 Chemical composition 228
11.414 Structure 228
11.42 Cell walls as reserve material 229
11.5 Variations in distribution of reserve materials 230
12. Seed heteromorphism 231

12.1 Structural differences between heteromorphs 234
12.2 Factors correlated with heteromorphism 23G
12.3 The advantage of polymorphism 240
13. Ruminate seeds 240
13.1 Manner of development of ruminated seeds 243
13.11 Ruminate endosperm 243
13.12 Seed coat rumination 243
13.121 Vasculature-correlated rumination 247
13.13 Classification of ruminated seeds 248
13.14 Rumination of the embryo 248
13.15 Rumination due to the pericarp 249
13.2 Function and origin 249
14. Secretory structures in seeds 249
14.1 Phenolics 250
14.11 Function 251
14.2 Mucilage 251
14.21 Mucilage composition 251
14.22 Structure and consistency of mucilage cells 252
14.23 Origin of the mucilaginous layer 258
14.24 Location of mucilage cells 258
14.241 Mucilaginous epidermal cells (Hair-forming mucilaginous
epidermal cells - Mucilage-containing hairs) 259
14.242 Mucilage structures inside the seed coat 261
14.25 Mucilage formation 262
14.26 Functions of the seed coat mucilage 263
14.3 Myrosin cells 264
4.31 Myrosin composition 265
14.32 Structure and ultrastructure of myrosin cells 265
14.4 Laticifers 265
14.5 Oil cells, cavities and ducts 266
14.6 Crystals and silica bodies 267
14.61 Location 267
14.62 Function 269
14.63 Crystal formation 270
15. Seed dispersal 271
15.1 Anemochoryv 272
15.11 Dust seeds 272
15.12 Balloons 273
15.13 Plumed seeds 274
15.14 Wings 277
15.141 The origin of the wing 280
15.142 Wing structure and development 282
15.2 Hydrochory 284
15.21 Floating seeds 284
15.3 Zoochory 286
15.31 Endozoochory 286
15.311 Arils (Aril development and structure - Function) 287

15.32 Synzoochory 293
15.321 Myrmecochory (Elaiosome structure) 293
15.33 Epizoochory 299
15.331 Emergences and hairs 299

15.332 Myxospermy 299
15.4 Autochory 300
15.41 The turgor mechanism 302
15.42 The imbibition mechanism (swelling or shrinkage mechanism) 303
15.43 Cohesion mechanism 303
16. Seed dormancy 303
16.1 Types of dormancy 304
16.11 Factors influencing dormancy 304
16.2 Impermeability to water 305
16.21 Seed coat characteristics responsible for impermeability 305
16.22 Stage of acquisition of water impermeability 312
16.23 Closure of seed coat openings 312
16.231 Micropyle 312
16.232 The chalazal region 313
16.3 Impermeability to oxygen 314
16.31 Physical barrier 315
16.32 Biochemical barrier 316
16.4 Mechanical barrier to radicle protrusion 318
16.41 Endosperm 318
16.42 Seed coat 319
16.43 Accessory envelopes 321
16.5 Dormancy of underdeveloped embryos 321
16.6 Natural release from germination inhibition caused by seed structure 323
17. Germination 324
17.1 Stages in germination 324
17.11 Imbibition 324
17.111 Site of initial water entry (Predetermined sites for water
penetration) 324
17.112 Reversibility of imbibition 325
17.113 Positioning of the seed on the substrate 326

17.114 Swelling on imbibition 326
17.115 Leakage upon imbibition 328
17.12 Sequence of cell reactivation in the embryo 328
17.121 Activation along the embryo 328
17.122 Activation across the embryo 329
17.13 Ultrastructural changes during germination 330
17.14 Embryo penetration through its envelopes 333
17.141 Rupture of the seed coat 335
17.142 Operculum 336
17.143 Micropylar collar 337
17.15 Mobilization of reserve materials 339
17.151 The embryonic absorbing organ (Haustorial cotyledon of
monocotyledons) 339
17.152 Mobilization of cell wall reserve materials (Cotyledon cell
walls - Endosperm cell walls) 342
17.153 Mobilization of reserve materials within the cell (Protein
mobilisation - Myrosin bodies - Degradation of oil bodies
- Starch mobilisation) 345
17.154 Changes in the provascular system 354
17.16 Germination of underdeveloped embryos 355
References 357
Subject index and index of plant names 404