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Siegfried Fink:

Pathological and Regenerative Plant Anatomy

1999. 1. edition, XII, 1095 pages, 1091 figures, 17x24cm, 2050 g
Language: English

(Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, Band XIV / 6)

ISBN 978-3-443-14027-4, bound, price: 173.00 €

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Keywords

plantanatomypathologicalregenerativeorganelle

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Healthy plants are not only the aim of all gardeners, farmers, and foresters, but they also are the principal study object of plant biologists. However, it is only the stressed, injured, or diseased plant which exhibits the full range of possible structural and functional responses to challenges by harmful abiotic or biotic stimuli, consisting of highly variable forms of degeneration, adaptation, defense, or regeneration. In medicine, books on diseases are obviously much more numerous than books on healthy humans; in botany, by comparison, books on injured and diseased plants are much rarer.

The present text tries to comprehend the current status of our knowledge of the possible structural changes in plants suffering from, e.g., genetic disorders, mechanical stresses, injuries, frost, heat, drought and mineral deficiencies and excesses, air pollutants, viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasitic vascular plants, nematodes, or insects. Almost 75 years after the last edition of Ernst Küster's book on Pathological Plant Anatomy (Pathologische Pflanzenanatomie), this is the first modern compilation of pathological plant anatomy. With more than 7000 references it covers the most relevant literature, including many older publications which have nearly fallen into oblivion, though they contain valuable and still unsurpassed information.
In order to present this vast amount of information from the diverse fields in a lucid form, special emphasis was placed on schematic classifications which are illustrated in comprehensive graphs. More than half of the 1091 illustrations are original drawings and photomicrographs, including 102 in colour.

In the first part of the book, the structural deviations in plants suffering from injury or disease are classified from the viewpoint of the plant, referring to the affected organelles, cells, tissues, and organs, while in the second part, they are grouped in the ``classical'' pattern of plant pathology according to the causal factors. Two smaller chapters finally cover aspects of the physiological background for the structural modifications, and the possible use of structural criteria for diagnostic purposes.
Because proper knowledge of structural relations is the prerequisite for all further understanding of plant reactions, this monograph will not only be an important reference book for all scientists working in plant pathology and related field, but also for those involved in developmental, physiological, and molecular plant biology.

Of interest to: all botanists, plant anatomists, plant pathologists, research institutions, science libraries.

Table of contents top ↑

Introduction 1
Structural Forms of Pathological and Regenerative Changes 6
2.1 Pathological and Regenerative Changes at the Organelle Level 6
2.1.1 Plasma Membrane 8
2.1.2 Cytosol 13
2.1.3 Cytoskeleton 13
2.1.4 Nucleus 16
2.1.5 Mitochondria 22
2.1.6 Plastids 27
2.1.7 Microbodies 42
2.1.8 Endoplasmic Reticulum 44
2.1.9 Ribosomes 44
2.1.10 Dictyosomes 45
2.1.11 Vacuole 46
2.1.12 Cell Wall 48
2.2 Pathological and Regenerative Changes at the Cell Level 93
2.2.1 Embryonal Cell 96
2.2.2 Mature Cell 96
2.2.3 Cell Malformation 96
2.2.4 Hypotrophy 97
2.2.5 Hypertrophy 99
2.2.6 Cell Division 105
2.2.7 Positional Changes 108
2.2.8 Metabolic Changes 111
2.2.8.1 Gene Activation 111
2.2.8.2 Changes in Enzyme Activities 112
2.2.8.3 Changes in Primary Metabolites 114
2.2.8.4 Changes in Secondary Metabolites 116
2.2.9 Compartmentation 124
2.2.10 Plasmolysis 135
2.2.11 Cytorrhysis 141
2.2.12 Cavitation 142
2.2.13 Cytorrhexis 143
2.2.14 Cytolysis 143
2.2.15 Cell Death 145
2.2.16 Regeneration 152
2.2.17 Active Exchange 154
2.2.18 Passive Withdrawal 160
2.2.19 Apoplastic Interchanges 161
2.2.20 Haustorial Interchanges 171
2.2.21 Intracellular Associations 184
2.2.22 Symplastic Interchanges 196
2.2.23 Gene Transfer 202
2.2.24 Cell Fusion 213
2.3 Pathological and Regenerative Changes at the Tissue Level 215
2.3.1 Meristematic Tissue 218
2.3.2 Mature Tissue 219
2.3.3 Target Cells 220
2.3.4 Functional Changes 222
2.3.4.1 Dysfunction of Stomatal Regulation 222
2.3.4.2 Infiltration of Intercellular Spaces 223
2.3.4.3 Dysfunction of the Water-conducting System 224
2.3.5 Heterotopy 234
2.3.6 Directional Changes 239
2.3.7 Hypoplasia: Quantitative 244
2.3.8 Hypoplasia: Qualitative 246
2.3.9 Hyperplasia 247
2.3.10 Homeoplasia 247
2.3.11 Heteroplasia: Cataplasia 248
2.3.12 Heteroplasia: Prosoplasia 249
2.3.13 Neoplasia 250
2.3.14 Anaplasia 255
2.3.15 Metaplasia 258
2.3.16 Coenocytes 261
2.3.17 Syncytia 262
2.3.18 Intercellular Spaces 262
2.3.18.1 Non-secretory Intercellular Spaces 263
2.3.18.2 Secretory Intercellular Spaces 264
2.3.19 Separation 276
2.3.20 Compartmentation 286
2.3.21 Regeneration 306
2.3.22 Tissue Fusion 315
2.3.23 Chimeras 327
2.3.24 Intrusion and Replacement 329
2.4 Pathological and Regenerative Changes at the Organ Level 332
2.4.1 Juvenile Plant 332
2.4.2 Adult Plant 335
2.4.3 Heterochrony 335
2.4.4 Correlations 336
2.4.4.1 Hormonal Correlations 336
2.4.4.2 Nutritional Correlations 337
2.4.4.3 Hydraulic Correlations 340
2.4.5 Compartmentation 340
2.4.6 Tropisms 341
2.4.7 Organ Malformations 343
2.4.8 Organ Transformations 346
2.4.9 Organ Neoformations 348
2.4.10 Root Regeneration 350
2.4.10.1 Morphological Aspects 350
2.4.10.2 Regeneration of Damaged Root Apices 356
2.4.10.3 Hypocotyledonary and Internodal Roots 358
2.4.10.4 Nodal Roots 367
2.4.10.5 Bud-borne Roots 368
2.4.10.6 Leaf-borne Roots 370
2.4.11 Shoot Regeneration 371
2.4.11.1 Morphological Aspects 371
2.4.11.2 Regeneration of Damaged Shoot Apices 373
2.4.11.3 Induced Axillary Meristems 376
2.4.11.4 Persistent Detached Axillary Meristems 377
2.4.11.5 Suppressed Axillary Buds 379
2.4.11.6 Short Shoots 386
2.4.11.7 Long Shoots 387
2.4.11.8 Stolons 387
2.4.11.9 Rhizomes 388
2.4.11.10 Hypocotyledonary Shoots 388
2.4.11.11 Internodal Shoots 389
2.4.11.12 Root-borne Shoots (Root Suckers) 394
2.4.11.13 Leaf-borne Shoots 399
2.4.11.14 Regeneration of Leaves 401
2.4.11.15 Regeneration of Flowers 402
2.4.11.16 Vascular Connections 402
2.4.12 Embryoids 404
2.4.12.1 Morphological Aspects 404
2.4.12.2 Nucellar Embryoids 406
2.4.12.3 Suspensor-borne Embryoids 407
2.4.12.4 Shoot-borne Embryoids 407
2.4.12.5 Root-borne Embryoids 408
2.4.12.6 Leaf-borne Embryoids 408
2.4.12.7 Flower-borne Embryoids 411
2.4.12.8 Embryoids from Suspension-cultured Cells 411
3. Causes of Pathological and Regenerative Changes 423
3.1 Senescence 423
3.2 Genetic Factors 427
3.3 Physical Factors 430
3.3.1 Gravitational Stress 430
3.3.1.1 Unidirectional Exposure to Gravitation 430
3.3.1.2 Inversion 431
3.3.1.3 Centrifugation 432
3.3.1.4 Microgravity 432
3.3.1.5 Horizontal Rotation 433
3.3.2 Mechanical Stress 433
3.3.2.1 Tension 434
3.3.2.2 Pressure 434
3.3.2.3 Dynamic Loadings 435
3.3.2.4 Internal Growth Strains 436
3.3.3 Mechanical Injuries 437
3.3.4 Chilling 456
3.3.5 Frost 457
3.3.6 Heat 472
3.3.7 Light 473
3.3.8 Ionizing Radiation 474
3.3.9 Electricity 478
3.3.10 Magnetism 479
3.3.11 Microwaves 479
3.3.12 Ultrasound 479
3.4 Chemical Factors 479
3.4.1 Water Deficiency 479
3.4.2 Water Excess 486
3.4.3 Mineral Deficiencies 489
3.4.3.1 Nitrogen Deficiency 491
3.4.3.2 Sulfur Deficiency 491
3.4.3.3 Phosphorus Deficiency 491
3.4.3.4 Calcium Deficiency 492
3.4.3.5 Potassium Deficiency 495
3.4.3.6 Magnesium Deficiency 496
3.4.3.7 Iron Deficiency 497
3.4.3.8 Manganese Deficiency 498
3.4.3.9 Zinc Deficiency 499
3.4.3.10 Copper Deficiency 499
3.4.3.11 Molybdenum Deficiency 500
3.4.3.12 Boron Deficiency 501
3.4.3.13 Multiple Deficiencies 504
3.4.4 Mineral Excesses 504
3.4.4.1 Nitrogen Excess 505
3.4.4.2 Sulfur Excess 506
3.4.4.3 Fluoride Excess 506
3.4.4.4 Aluminium Excess 506
3.4.4.5 Manganese Excess 508
3.4.4.6 Zinc Excess 509
3.4.4.7 Boron Excess 509
3.4.4.8 Copper Excess 510
3.4.4.9 Cadmium Excess 510
3.4.4.10 Cobalt Excess 511
3.4.4.11 Chromium Excess 511
3.4.4.12 Lead Excess 511
3.4.4.13 Nickel Excess 512
3.4.4.14 Uranium Excess 512
3.4.4.15 Vanadium Excess 512
3.4.4.16 NaCI Excess 513
3.4.5 Particulate Emissions 514
3.4.6 Acid Precipitation 515
3.4.7 Gaseous Air Pollutants 520
3.4.7.1 Sulfur Dioxide 521
3.4.7.2 Ozone and Other Oxidants 523
3.4.7.3 Nitrogen Oxides 528
3.4.7.4 Ammonia 528
3.4.7.5 Hydrogen Fluoride 528
3.4.7.6 Hydrogen Chloride 528
3.4.7.7 Bromine 529
3.4.7.8 Hydrocarbons 529
3.4.7.9 Controlled Mixtures 529
3.4.7.10 Field Mixtures 530
3.4.8 Carbon Dioxide 531
3.4.9 Detergents 532
3.4.10 Growth Regulators and Herbicides 533
3.4.11 Fungicides 540
3.4.12 Insecticides 542
3.5 Biotic Factors 543
3.5.1 Viroids, Viruses and Phytoplasmas 543
3.5.1.1 General Aspects 543
3.5.1.2 Infection and Translocation 545
3.5.1.3 Symptoms 546
3.5.2 Bacteria 561
3.5.2.1 General Aspects 561
3.5.2.2 Infection 561
3.5.2.3 Saprotrophic Bacteria 563
3.5.2.4 Necrotrophic Bacteria 563
3.5.2.5 Biotrophic Bacteria 577
3.5.3 Fungi and Fungal-Like Organisms 589
3.5.3.1 General Aspects 589
3.5.3.2 Infection 590
3.5.3.3 Saprotrophic Fungi 598
3.5.3.4 Necrotrophic Fungi 602
3.5.3.5 Biotrophic Fungi 628
3.5.4 Protozoa 650
3.5.5 Algae 652
3.5.6 Lichens 654
3.5.7 Parasitic Vascular Plants 655
3.5.8 Nematodes 669
3.5.9 Molluscs 678
3.5.10 Arthropods 679
3.5.11 Birds 704
3.5.12 Mammals 704
3.6 Diseases Caused by Complex or Unknown Factors 705
4. Recognition and Regulation 720
4.1 Introduction 720
4.2 Recognition 720
4.2.1 Recognition of a Host Plant by a Parasite/Symbiont 721
4.2.2 Recognition of a Parasite/Symbiont by a Host Plant 722
4.2.3 Recognition of Abiotic Stress Factors 724
4.3 Signal Transduction 725
4.3.1 Signal Transduction at the Cellular Level 726
4.3.2 Long-distance Signal Transduction 728
4.3.3 Signal Exchange Between Different Plants (Interplant Communication) 730
4.4 Toxins 730
4.5 Hormonal Regulation 735
4.5.1 Types of Hormonal Stimuli 735
4.5.2 Changes in the Hormonal Balance by Abiotic and Biotic Factors 737
5. Anatomical Investigations as an Applied Diagnostic Tool 745
6. Literature 755
7. Index 106

Rev.: Phytomorphology 50, no. 3&4, p. 348-349 top ↑

THE first comprehensive book on pathological plant anatomy
"Pathologische Pflanzenanatomie" was written by Ernst Küster in the
beginning of the 20th century. In the introduction to this book,
Kuster stated that the role of pathological plant anatomy is the
search for those structures of the plant body, which are regarded as
abnormal or pathological. In the book Pathological and Regenerative
Plant Anatomy Fink asks the question what is normal in relation to
plants. There are, in general, only a few processes in the ontogeny of
pathologically altered cells, tissues and organs that are not known
for the normal development as well. Pathology is frequently only seen
in the extent, the location, or the timing of these processes. Fink,
for instance, mentions that death of tissues is a normal process
during differentiation of the rhytidome or heartwood in trees, whereas
a premature occurrence of the same process may severely limit the
viability of the tree and is clearly pathological. In many cases the
proper pathological changes are much less conspicuous than the
following regenerative responses. Fink, therefore, rightly includes
the regenerative anatomy. Recent developments in the techniques and
research in plant anatomy enabled Fink to produce a very valuable
comprehensive book on pathological and regenerative changes at the
various structural levels of the plant body, from the organelles to
tissues and organs. The book deals with vegetative organs and omits,
in general, pathological phenomena specific to reproductive organs and
tissues. However, even without the latter the book comprises 753 pages
of text, 308 references and an index of 33 pages. It is very well
illustrated with diagrams, micrographs and coloured plates. More than
half of the figures are original. The author, whose original subject
of interest is forestry, puts emphasis in the book on trees, but does
not neglect other plants. The book contains a large amount of
important information on a wide range of subjects. It contains two
major chapters. The first chapter "Structural Forms of Pathological
and Regenerative Changes" includes pathological and regenerative
changes at the organelle, cell, tissue and organ level. The second
chapter "Causes of Pathological and Regenerative Changes" deals with
genetic, physical, chemical and biotic factors. The latter includes
plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae,
parasitic higher plants and animals. In addition, there appear in the
book shorter presentations of plant hormones and the use of anatomical
data as a diagnostic factor.


The book contains act enormously wide range of subjects, including
plant development, phytopathology and responses of plant organs to
environmental factors such as gravitational stress, pressure and
mechanical injuries. It is an important source of information for
researchers and students of all aspects of plant sciences and should
be available in every biological, agricultural and forestry library.


A. Fahn, The Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem


Phytomorphology 50, no. 3&4, p. 348-349