Ingrid Roth; Ana-Maria Gimenez:

Argentine Chaco Forests
Dendrology, tree structure and economic use

2. The humid Chaco

2006. 204 pages, 27 figures, 24 tables, 18x24cm, 650 g
Language: English

(Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, Band XIV / 7)

ISBN 978-3-443-14028-1, bound, price: 84.00 €

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Content Description top ↑

More than 50 species were studied in the humid part of the eastern Chaco with their special peculiarities and differences in dendrological aspects as well as in bark and wood structure so as to compare them with the other Chaco-forest types.

Trees in the humid Chaco are higher as compared with those of the semi-arid Chaco. The percentage of trees belonging to the lowest height category is higher in the semi-arid Chaco than in the humid Chaco. While only one species of the semi-arid Chaco belongs to height category 2 (20 to 30 m), 12,5% of the trees in the humid forest reach even a height of over 30 m (cat 1).

Species with the thickest stems and a DBH above 70 cm reach the highest percentage in the humid forest, while the DBH of the species in the semi-arid region is low and only Chorisia insignis reaches more than 70 cm. Macroscopic bark structure and microscopic bark and wood structures are described and compared in detail.

A very large region in Argentinia, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia and several forest types were studied and compared. In a future publication the authors will deal with the mountains Chaco forests to make an exhaustive comparison between the three types of forests, their dendrological and structural peculiarities, their important species with their requirements and their useful products.

Contents top ↑

Preface V
Sites of collection and vegetation 1
The eastern Chaco District 1
Gallery forests of the humid Chaco 3
Material and methods 4
Species studied 5
Dendrological description of the most important
species in the humid Chaco 7
Discussion of the dendrological results 37
Height categories of the trees 37
DBH maxima 39
Types of leaves 40
Leaf fall 41
Flowering periods 43
Fruiting periods 43
Fruit types 43
Macroscopic and outer aspect of the bark 49
Discussion of the macroscopic and outer bark aspect 64
Total bark width 64
Living bark width 64
Dead bark width 64
Lenticels 68
Microscopic bark structure 68
Discussion of the microscopic bark structure 107
Arrangement of the hardbast 107
Hardbast composition 108
Dilation growth 108-110
Secondary formation of stone cells 110
Storied structure 110
Anomalous secondary growth 111
Spines 111
Secretory structures 111
Bark consistency 111
Crystals 113
Cork and pheloloderm, periderm and rhytidome formation 115
Microscopic wood structure 116
Discussion of the microscopic wood structure 159
Index of vulnerability in water conduction 159
Growth ring width 161
Number of rays/mm 162
Height of rays 163
Cellular composition of rays 163
Width of xylem rays 163
Apotracheal axial parenchyma 164
Paratracheal axial parenchyma 165
Fiber Length 166
Wall thickness of fibers 167
Septate fibers 167
Presence of tyloses 168
Presence of gums 168
Vascular tracheids 168
Fiber tracheids 168
Vessel member length 169
Tangential diameter of vessel lumen 170
Frequency of vessels per mm² 171
Porosity 172
Vessel arrangement 174
Perforation plates 174
Properties and utilization of the timber and of other
useful parts of the trees 174
Specific weight in kg/dm³ (according to Tortorelli) 193
Final conclusions 194
Bibliography 199
Author Index 202
Subject Index 202
Index of scientific plant names 203