cover

R. H. Crozier:

Insecta 7. Hymenoptera

1975. IV, 95 pages, 34 figures, 4 tables, 16x25cm, 280 g
Language: English

(Animal Cytogenetics, Volume 3)

ISBN 978-3-443-26004-0, paperback, price: 28.00 €

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Contents

Contents top ↑

Preface V
1 Introduction 1
2 Spermatogenesis 3
2.1 General considerations 3
2.2 First division 3
2.3 Fate of the nuclear membrane 7
2.4 Second division 7
2.5 Spermatogenesis in diploid males 8
2.6 Reported deviations from the usual type of hymenopteran
Spermatogenesis 9
2.7 Sperm polyphenism 10
3 Oogenesis 11
3.1 General considerations O 11
3.2 Normal oogenesis 11
3.3 Oogenesis of polyploid Nasonia vitripennis 14
3.4 Thelytoky: general considerations 15
3.5 Thelytoky: discussion 16
4 DNA content in somatic cells 18
5 Sex-determination 20
5.1 General considerations 20
5.2 Multiple alleles at a single locus 20
5.3 Nucleocytoplasmic balance 20
5.4 Genic balance 21
5.5 Battaglia's scheme 21
5.6 Multiple locus 22
5.7 5.7.1 Bracon 23
5.7.2 Apis 24
5.7.3 Meliponine bees 24
5.7.4 Bombus 24
5.7.5 Pseudolasius 25
5.7.6 Neodiprion nigroscutum 25
5.7.7 Melittobia 25
5.7.8 Nasonia 26
5.7.9 Two thelytokous specie 27
5.8 Distinguishing between the hypotheses 28
5.9 Population genetic implications of the multiple-locus theory 29
5.10 Origins of sexual mosaics 30
5.11 Egg predetermination 32
6 Karyotype evolution 33
6.1 Notes on karyotype elucidation 33
6.2 General considerations 33
6.3 Chromosomal polymorphism 39
6.4 The genus-karyotype concept 40
6.4.1 Symphyta 41
6.4.2 Apocrita-Parasitica 41
6.4.3 Apocrita-Vespoidea 45
6.4.4 Apocrita-Formicoidea 45
6.4.5 Apocrita-Apoidea 55
6.5 Chromosome evolution in the order as a whole 60
7 The chromosomal basis of hymenopteran life cycles 61
7.1 The primitive cycle 61
7.2 Thelytokous species 61
7.3 Alternation of generations in Cynipidae 62
7.4 Modiflcations of sociality 67
8 Evolutionary considerations 70
8.1 The origin of hymenopteran haplodiploidy 70
8.2 Sex-ratios and the breeding system 72
8.3 Does dosage compensation occur in Hymenoptera? 73
8.4 Effects of haplodiploidy on stores of genetic variability 74
8.5 Sex-limited gene effects 75
8.6 Differences between sexes in phenotypic variability 75
8.7 Average fitness and the speed of evolution 76
8.8 Hymenoptera and sociality 76
Literature 78
Species Index 92