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S. G. Smith; N. Virkki:

Insecta 5. Coleoptera

1978. X, 366 pages, 102 figures, 44 tables, 16x25cm, 870 g
Language: English

(Animal Cytogenetics, Volume 3)

ISBN 978-3-443-26007-1, paperback, price: 99.80 €

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Keywords

cytogeneticanimalinsectColeopterachromosomeZytogenetikTierInsektColeopteraChromosom

Contents

Introduction top ↑

The general plan of this monograph, as well as the scientific and English editing of the manuscript, were mainly the task of S.G. Smith, until his death in May, 1975.
Chapters 2 to 5 were written during the year beginning July lst. 1972, when Virkki spent his sabbatical leave from the University of Puerto Rico at the Insect Pathology Research Institute in Sault Ste. Marie. These Chapters include a relatively broad discussion of the Coleoptera in relation to recent advances in cytogenetics, allowing us some speculation and new hypotheses. The literature survey for these chapters was practically concluded by 1973, although a few additions were made later. Virkki is mainly responsible for this part of the volume.
Six is the most deeply analytical of our Chapters, containing the first synopsis of the meticulous karyotyping, hybridisation, and cytotaxonomic studies on Chilocorini and Pissodes weevils conducted by Smith during the last twenty years. Chapters 6 and 7 were mainly written by him in 1973-75. Smith’s third Chromosome List is added to the end of the volume as an Appendix.

Contents top ↑


Preface VII

Acknowledgements IX
1 Introduction 1
2 Timing and course of gametogenesis 3
2.1 Timing 3
2.2 Premeiotic multiplicative mitoses 5
2.3 Course of meiosis 19
3 Structure of chromosomes 21
3.1 Size relationship 21
3.1.1 General 21
3.1.2 Within the karyotype 24
3.2 Linear structure 29
3.2.1 Centromere 29
3.2.2 Secondary constrictions 30
3.2.3 Telomere 33
3.2.4 Heterochromatin 38
3.2.4.1 Gene amplification 42
3.2.4.2 Procentric and distal heterochromatin 46
3.2.4.3 Cryptic heterochromatin 52
3.2.4.4 Partially or totally heterochromatic chromosomes 57
Standard members of the karyotype-Supernumerary chromosomes
3.2.5 Linkage maps 71
4 Chiasmata 74
4.1 Distribution of chiasmata 74
4.1.1 Random distribution: Diabrotica 74
4.1.2 Localisation of chiasmata 77
4.1.2.1 Distal and proterminal localisation: Pleocoma and Pissodes 78
4.1.2.2 Limitation to one arm: Chilocorus 85
4.1.2.3 Proximal localisation: MelanopAthatma 88
4.1.2.4 Other patterns of localisation 88
Autosomes: Agriotes-Sex chromosomes
4.2 Terminalisation of chiasmata 92
4.3 Chiasmata and polyploidy 96
4.4 Chiasmata and recombination 98
5 Sex chromosome systems 102
5.1 Orthodox systems 103
5.1.1 Non-chiasmate systems 103
5.1.1.1 Xyp 103
Simple parachute-Parachute with multiple sex chromosomes: Onyx or nXyp
5.1.1.2 Xyc 114
5.1.1.3 XO 115
5.1.1.4 X1 + X2 116
5.1.2 Chiasmate systems 117
5.1.2.1 NeoXY,Xy, Xyr 117
5.1.2.2 XY 119
5.1.2.3 Multiple systems: X1X2Y, XY1Y2, nXnY 120
5.1.2.4 Multiple systems with mixed chiasmate and nucleolar
association: XpneoXneoYp nXnY 124
5.2 Unorthodox systems 135
5.2.1 Postreduction of hereditary sex-chromosome univalents
by means of anaphase bridges 135
5.2.2 Segregation of sex chromosomes from a distance-bivalent
or distance-multivalent condition 137
5.2.2.1 Formation and maintenance of distance sex bi- and multi-valents 140
5.2.2.2 Structure of X and y in Oedionychina 145
5.2.2.3 Evolution of sex chromosomes in Oedionychina 147
5.2.2.4 Other cases 148
5.2.3 Segregation of asynaptic, amphiorienting sex chromosomes by
interaction between spindle fibres 149
5.2.4 Multiple systems with both chiasmate and asynaptic
sex chromosomes 152
6 Chromosomal rearrangement and speciation A 153
6.1 The chilocorine story 154
6.1.1 The evidence from comparative karyology 154
6.1.1.1 Chilocorus species 154
6.1.1.2 Other genera 160
6.1.2 The evidence from hybridisation experiments 161
6.2 The Pissodes story 175
6.2.1 The evidence from comparative karyology and hybridisation 175
6.2.1.1 North American species 175
6.2.1.2 Exotic species 181
6.2.2 The evidence from semi-incompatibility systems 183
6.3 The Scolytid story 187
6.3.1 Ips species 187
6.3.2 Dendroctonus 191
6.3.3 The sex-ratio condition 193
6.4 Miscellaneous cases 193
6.4.1 Brumus (Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) 195
6.4.2 Brachyacantha (Coccinellidae: Hyperaspini) 195
6.5 Chromosomal polymorphism vs. natural hybridisation 196
6.5.1 Chilocorus 198
6.5.2 Pissodes 201
7 Polyploidy and parthenogenesis 203
7.1 Bisexual species 203
7.1.1 Somatic tissues 203
7.1.2 Germ line 209
7.1.2.1 Sporadic polyploidy and aneuploidy 209
7.1.2.2 Alleged polyploid bisexual species 212
7.2 Parthenogenesis 214
7.2.1 Arrhenotoky 214
7.2.2 Pseudogamy 217
7.2.3 Thelytoky 218
7.2.3.1 Cytologically unauthenticated cases 219
Ptiliidae-Pselaphidae-Hydrophilidae-Staphylinidae-
Elateridae-Coccinellidae-Curculionidae
7.2.3.2 Cytologically authenticated cases 221
Excluding weevils-Weevils
7.2.4 Origin and consequences of parthenogenesis 229
7.2.4.1 Arrhenotoky 229
7.2.4.2 Pseudogamy 232
7.2.4.3 Thelytoky 232
8 Appendix: Chromosome numbers of Coleoptera 235
8.1 The List 236
8.2 Summary 290
8.3 Addendum 291
References 293
Family and Genus Index for Appendix 339
General Index 345