Bohdan Matuszewski:

Insecta 3. Diptera I


1982. IV, 140 pages, 3 figures, 10 tables, 16x25cm, 350 g
Language: English

(Animal Cytogenetics, Volume 3)

ISBN 978-3-443-26011-8, paperback, price: 40.00 €

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Content Description top ↑

The Cecidomyiidae are a family of “lower” Diptera (suborder Nematocera) ranked into the superfamily Bibionomorpha. Included in the same group are the Mycetophylidae, Sciaridae, Bibionidae, Ceroplatidae, Scatopsidae, Anisopodidae and Macroceridae, to mention only families with the largest number of species.

Rodendorf (1946) considers that the Cecidomyiidae originated from a family of Dipterous flies in the early Cretaceous period. Mani (1950) is of the opinion that this probably took place in the Lower Jurassic, while Henning (1954) places it in Middle-Jurassic. Möhn (1960a) too holds that free living gall midges existed already in the Jura, but that gall-producing species first appeared in the Upper Cretaceous period. Thus, apart from some differences of detail, both authors agree that primitive gall midges appeared in the Jura, that the subfamily Cecidomyiinae appeared at the beginning of the Cretaceous period as the most progressive group, and that at the end of that period this subfamily already included a group of species developing in living plant tissues and producing galls. This opinion has been confirmed by results of paleontological studies of insects from the Baltic amber, which showed that the Cecidomyiidae were a diversified and highly specialized family in the forests of the Upper Eocene, and that this family had considerable similarities to the present-day gall midges.

Contents top ↑

1 Introduction 1
2 Cytological characteristics of the Cecidomyiidae 8
2.1 Elimination divisions and formation of primordial germ cells 8
2.1.1 Morphology 9 Time of chromosome elimination and segregation of the
germ-line nucleus 11 Incomplete elimination 12 Mitotic gradient 13 A gradient of chromosome elimination 14 Types of chromosome elimination 16 The fate of eliminated chromosomes 22 Heteropycnosis in the germ-line nuclei 23
2.1.2 Experimental analysis 25 Experiments involving cauterisation 25 Experiments with ultraviolet irradiation 25 Experiments involving constriction of eggs 26
2 1.2.4 Experiments with centrifugation 27
2.2 Fate of female primordial germ cells, organisation of egg follicle,
and the origin of oosome material 35
2.3 Spermatogenesis 41
3 Life cycles and chromosome cycles of Cecidomyiidae 53
3.1 Lestremiinae 54
3.1.1 Tekomyia populi Mohn 54 Thelytokous paedogenesis 54 Arrhentokous pacdogenesis S S
3.1.2 Mycotbila nikoleii Mohn 56 Thelytokous pacdogenesis 57 Metamorphosis and bisexual generation 57
3.1.3 Mycotbila barnesi Edwards 57
3.1.4 Mycophilaspeyeri Barnes 57 Thelytokous paedogenesis 58 Arrhenotokous and amphitokous pacdogenesis 59 Metamorphosis and bisexual reproduction 59 Cytology of paedogenesis 60 Cytology of the female embryos 60 Cytology of the male embryos 62 Cytology of bisexual reproduction 64
3.2 Porricondylinae 64
3.2.1 Henria psalliotue Wyatt 64
3.2.2 Leptosyna nervosa (Winnertz) 65
3.2.3 Heteropezala tenuis Wyatt 65
3.2.4 Heteropeza pygmaea Winnertz ( -Oligarces paradoxes Meinert) 66 Thelytokous pacdogenesis 67 Arrhenotokous and amphitokous pacdogenesis 70 Bisexual reproduction and imaginal parthenogenesis 72 Cytology of pacdogenesis 75 Cytology of the female embryos 75 Cytology of the male embryos 77 Cytology of bisexual reproduction and imaginal
arthenogenesis 81 Sex determination and the problem of a somatic
haplo-diploidy 83
3.2.5 Brittenia fraxinicola Edwards 85
3.2.6 Miastor metraloas Meinert 85 Thelytokous paedogenesis 86 Arrhenotokous and amphitokous pacdogenesis 87 Metamorphosis and bisexual reproduction 88 Cytology of paedogenesis 88 Cytology of the female embryos 88 Cytology of the male embryos 89 Cytology of bisexual reproduction 90
3.2.7 Miastor castaneae Wyatt 91
2.3 Cecidomyiinae 91
3.3.1 Oogenesis 91 Small nuclei 91 Behaviour of the S-chromosomes 92 Behaviour of the E-chromosomes 93 Meiotic divisions 99
3.3.2 Sex determination and sex ratio 105
4 The relationship between S-chromosomes and E-chromosomes 108
5 The role of the E-chromosomes 114
6 The polytene chromosomes 117
References 127
Acknowledgements 137
Species Index 139