cover

Ettore Olmo:

Chordata 3. A. Reptilia

1986. IV, 100 pages, 35 figures, 12 tables, 16x25cm, 260 g
Language: English

(Animal Cytogenetics, Volume 4)

ISBN 978-3-443-26012-5, paperback, price: 40.00 €

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Keywords

animalcytogeneticreptilesauriaChrodataTierZytogenetikReptilSaurierChordata

Contents

Introduction top ↑

There are four principal reasons why the study of reptilian karyology is of importance. First, reptiles occupy a key position in the evolution of vertebrates. They were the first to break free of the aquatic environment (Carroll, 1969), and are themselves the direct descendants of the stock from which all extant amniotes derive. Second, the evolutionary history of this class is better known than that of most other animal groups because of a relatively good supply of fossil forms. Third, extant reptiles, while not exhibiting the range of mesozoic forms, nevertheless show wide morphological and ecological differences, including forms adapted to diversified environments. Finally, a large amount of data have been collected on the biogeography, ecology, reproductive biology, and, in some cases, also on the cytological variability at both inter- and intraspecific level of certain of the reptilian groups. These four factors make this class a good model for the study of the role of genomic variations in macro- and microevolutionary processes and the cytological and molecular mechanisms which underlie these variations.

Contents top ↑

1 Introduction 1
2 A review of reptile karyotypes 3
2.1 Some general principles 3
2.2 The chromosome data 4
2.2.1 The Chelonia 4
2.2.1.1 The suborder Pleurodira 5
(1) The Pelomedusidae 5
(2) The Chelidae 7
(3) Chromosome evolution in the pleurodires 7
2.2.1.2 The suborder Cryptodira 9
(1) The Chelydridae 9
(2) The Kinosternidae 11
(3) The Dermatemydidae 11
(4) The Emydidae 12
(5) The Platysternidae 13
(6) The Testudinidae 14
(7) The Cheloniidae 15
(8) The Carettochelyidae 15
(9) The Trionychidae 15
(10) Chromosomes, taxonomy and phylogeny of the
cryptodires 17
2.2.1.3 Size and organization of the genome in turtles 20
2.2.1.4 General trends in the genome evolution of turtles 25
2.2.2 The Lepidosauria 26
2.2.2.1 The Rhynchocephalia 27
2.2.2.2 The Sauria 27
(1) The Iguanidae 28
(2) The Agamidae 32
(3) The Chamaeleonidae 33
(4) The Gekkonidae 34
(5 ) The Pygopodidae 36
(6) The Teiidae 37
(7) The Lacertidae 39
(8) The Cordylidae 41
(9) The Xantusiidae 42
(10) The Scincidae 42
(11) The Diploglossa 44
(12) The Platynota 45
2.2.2.3 The Amphisbaenia 45
2.2.2.4 The Ophidia 47
(1) Primitive snakes (Henophidia and Scolecophidia) 47
(2) The Colubridae 49
(3) The Viperidae 51
(4) The Elapidae 51
2.2.2.5 Size and organisation of the genome in squamates 53
2.2.2.6 General trends in the karyological evolution of squamates 57
2.2.3 The Crocodylia 61
3 Particular problems in reptile cytogenetics 63
3.1 The evolution of sex-chromosomes 63
3.2 The evolution of parthenogenesis in reptiles 67
3.3 Chromosome change and evolutionary change in reptiles 68
4 Concluding remarks on reptilian karyology 70
Acknowledgments 79
References 80
Species Index 94