cover

Les Christidis:

Chordata 3. B. Aves

1990. IV, 116 pages, 40 figures, 30 tables, 16x25cm, 310 g
Language: English

(Animal Cytogenetics, Volume 4)

ISBN 978-3-443-26014-9, paperback, price: 55.00 €

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Keywords

ChordatiereVögelChordataAves

Contents

Content Description top ↑

There are four principal reasons why the study of reptilian karyology is of importance. First, reptiles occupy a key position in the evolution of vertebrates. They were the first to break free of the aquatic environment (Carroll, 1969), and are themselves the direct descendants of the stock from which all extant amniotes derive. Second, the evolutionary history of this class is better known than that of most other animal groups because of a relatively good supply of fossil forms. Third, extant reptiles, while not exhibiting the range of mesozoic forms, nevertheless show wide morphological and ecological differences, including forms adapted to diversified environments.

Finally, a large amount of data have been collected on the biogeography, ecology, reproductive biology, and, in some cases, also on the cytological variability at both inter- and intraspecific level of certain of the reptilian groups. These four factors make this class a good model for the study of the role of genomic variations in macro- and microevolutionary processes and the cytological and molecular mechanisms which underlie these variations.

Contents top ↑


1 Introduction 1
1.1 The class Aves 1
1.2 General features of the avian karyotype 1
2 The avian genome 6
2.1 Genome size 6
2.2 Genome structure 9
2.2.1 Composition of the avian genome 9
2.2.2 The localization of heterochromatin and satellite DNA 9
2.2.3 Genome organization 13
3 Karyotypic features of special interest 14
3.1 Microchromosomes 14
3.2 Nucleolar organizers (NORs) 15
3.3 Sex-chromosomes 16
3.3.1 Sex-chromosome constitution 16
3.3.2 The Z-chromosome 17
3 .3 .3 The W-chromosome 18
3.3.4 Sex-determining mechanisms and dosage compensation 19
3.4 Meiosis 19
4 Avian cytotaxonomy 20
4.1 Background 20
4.2 The chromosome data 20
4.2.1 The Ratitae 20
4.2.2 Sphenisciformes, Gaviiformes, Podicipediformes, Procellariformes,
Pelecaniformes 22
4.2.3 Ciconiiformes 23
4.2.4 Anseriformes 26
4.2.5 Falconiformes 28
4.2.6 Galliformes 33
4.2.7 Gruiformes 36
4.2.8 Charadriiformes 39
4.2.9 Columbiformes 43
4.2.10 Psittaciformes 45
4.2.1 1 Cuculiformes 49
4.2.12 Strigiformes 50
4.2.13 Caprimulgiformes, Apodiformes, Coliiformes 53
4.2.14 Coraciiformes 55
4.2.15 Piciformes 58
4.2.16 Passeriformes 59
5 Change within the avian karotype -- patterns and mechanisms 78
5.1 Intraspecific polymorphisms 78
5.1.1. Structural variation 78
5.1.2. Heterochromatic variation 80
5.2 Induced and natural cytological abnomralities in domestic species 81
5.3 Chromosomal homology across avian orders 82
5.4 Teh significance of karyotypic cahnge in birds 84
Acknowledgements 87
References 88
Species index 109