Werner Rutz:

Cities and towns in Indonesia

Their development, current positions and functions with regard to administration and regional economy

1987. X, 292 pages, 13 figures, 38 tables, 6 maps, 21x28cm, 1700 g
Language: English

(Urbanization of the Earth, Volume 4)

ISBN 978-3-443-37006-0, bound, price: 66.00 €

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Synopsis top ↑

Political and business leaders in Indonesia, a country dispersed over the Malayan Archipelago, are become aware of and receptive to Western ideas. An acculturation process of never previously experienced proportions has now been going on for decades, and this economic and cultural change primarily focuses on the cities.

This book, published 1987 in an English version, contains the first comprehensive presentation of all aspects of the Indonesian urban system. No study of urban systems has hitherto been available for any of the major regions of South East Asia.

The present work, with its clear text, numerous tables and diagrams, plus six maps in colour, is not only intended for geographers, sociologists, historians and interested lay people — it also has a positively practical aspect. This is the first time that business and regional planners are offered an archipelago-wide base for assessing urban population potentials: it describes where development centres are located and the economic functions which have hitherto been related to the various locations. In addition, it also considers the settlements which stand out amongst the mass of merely rural villages. Over 4000 such places have been studied and listed.

From the contents: Of today’s 39 major cities, 5 already existed in the Hindu Middle Ages, 15 were founded under Islamic rule, another 15 during early colonial times and 4 only in the present century. The cultural atmosphere of many Javanese cities is still dominated by the old ru|er’s residence (kraton), the well-proportioned squares (alun-alun) and avenues. To the present day, the largest area of the city suburbs is occupied by the so-called ”kampungs“ — the free-standing houses and huts of the middle and lower classes. Modern office buildings encroach on these originally garden areas. Here urban planning is faced with immense tasks.

Of interest to: geographers, especially in the field of population and settlement geography, agricultural and economic geography, transportation geography and historical geography; ethnographers, linguists, travel and transportation specialists, politicians, specialists in economic policy, cartographers, historians and their institutions, scientific libraries.

Contents top ↑

Foreword V
0. introduction 1
0.1 Subject - Questions considered - Aims of the study 1
0.2 Sources - Data Compilation - Literature 3
0.3 Organisation - Evaluation of evidence - Methodology 7
1. Political-geographic framework of the urban system 17
1.1 The state of Indonesia 17
1.2 Area and extension 19
1.3 Administrative structure 22
1.4 Population and urbanisation 27
1.4.1 Population distribution 27
1.4.2 Degree of urbanisation 31
2. Origins and genetic types of town 42
2.1 Main features of historical-genetic stratification 42
2.2 Periods of urban foundation 43
2.2.1 The towns and cities of the Hindu period up until 1400 43
2.2.2 The towns end cities ofthe Islamic realms and ofthe period of early
European rule (1400-1700) 46
2.2.3 The urban system during the period of colonial partition and
penetration (1700-1900) 51
2.2.4 The towns and cities founded during the period of modern
industrialisation 58
2.3 Historical-genetic stratification of the present-day urban system 63
3. Cultural and architectural habitue 68
3.1 General features of urban structure 68
3.2 Districts characterised by specific structural elements 74
3.2.1 The traditional nucleus 74
3.2.2 The autochthonous kampung 76
3.2.3 The lousiness districts 77
3.2.4 The upper-class residential areas 79
4. Spatial distribution - Location characteristics - Urban regions 83
4.1 Number and distribution by island groups 83
4.2 Location characteristics 86
4.2.1 Location according to distance from the coast 86
4.2.2 Location according to altitude 88
4.3 Urban regions 90
4.3.1 Principles of division 90
4.3.2 Sumatra 91
4.3.3 Java 93
4.3.4 Borneo 95
4.3.5 East Indonesia 95
4.3.6 Appendix: West New Cuinea 96
5. Number of inhabitants and sizes of towns and cities 99
5.1 Present-day size categories and ranks of towns and cities 99
5.1.1 Rank-size distribution in the overall national system 99
5.1.2 Rank-size distribution in regional subsystems 105
5.2 Growth of towns and cities in general 108
5.2.1 Growth of towns and cities in the overall national system 108
5.2.2 Growth of towns and cities in regional subsystems 112
5.3 Growth of individual towns and cities and their regional pattern 115
5.3.1 Growth of individual towns and cities since 1930 115
5.3.2 Growth of individual towns and cities between 1961 and 1971 119
5.3.3 Growth of individual towns and cities between 1971 and 1980 121
5.4 Changes since 1930 in the rank positions of towns and cities
according to inhabitants 129
6. Functions and functional types of towns and cities 140
6.1 Central Services 140
6.1.1 Official services (administration and courts) 140
6.1.2 Semi-official services (education and health) 141
6.1.3 Private services (commerce, banking, insurance) 142
6.1.4 Central services in general 143
6.2 Ports and other transportation services 149
6.2.1 Seaports 149
6.2.2 Land transportation centres 156
6.3 Sea fishery 161
6.4 Manufacturing industries and mining 166
6.5 Tourism 181
6.6 Summary - Functional types of towns and cities 186
7. Positions of towns and cities in the central place hierarchy 198
7.1 Ranking according to central place facilities 198
7.2 Hierarchical classification 206
7.3 Regional structures of central place facilities and the resulting
hierarchy 210
7.4 Changes in central place facilities and the resulting hierarchy 216
7.4.1 Comparison with the situation around 1930 216
7.4.2 Comparison with the situation in earlier centuries 221
8. Spheres of influence and hinterlands 229
8.1 Sizes of spheres of influence 229
8.2 Spheres of influence of regional metropolises 230
8.3 Spheres of influence of higher-order centres 231
8.4 Comparison with regions of national development 234
9. Outlook 240
Summary 241
Kesimpulan dalam bahasa Indonesia 247
Literature 256
Basic table: Indonesia's towns and cities and their characterising data
(Table 0-1) 265
Index of place names 283
Maps 1 - 6 (cover pocket) l