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Liliane E. Petrini; Orlando Petrini:

Identifying Moulds

A Practical Guide

2013. VII, 191 pages, 37 figures, 12 tables, 14x23cm, 420 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-443-50038-2, paperback, price: 44.80 €

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Keywords

mouldsenvironmentfungihealthSchimmelpilzUmweltPilzGesundheit

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Identifying moulds is an introduction to the procedures to be followed for the identification of the most common and important genera of moulds. This first English edition is based on the third German edition of Schimmelpilze und deren Bestimmung by the same authors. It has been revised and updated. Identification keys were expanded to include dermatophytes and some clinically important, opportunistic mould genera.

The authors present the fundamentals of mycology and fungal taxonomy necessary to understand and use the methods described. Keys allowing the identification of the most common mould genera are included, with reference to more specialized identification literature, and a glossary of the most relevant mycological terms is also provided. The morphological characters typical of the different fungal groups are outlined and should facilitate the use of the keys.

The book focuses on genera that are frequently found in the environment, are common plant pathogens, involved in food spoilage, or may be isolated from human and animal tissues as opportunistic pathogens.

No previous knowledge of fungi is expected. Very basic information on mycology, concise descriptions of taxonomic schemes, of the methods to be used for identification of fungi, practical information on culture media as well as some ad vice for handling moulds and elementary safety issues are provided. An outline of the significance of fungi for public health and an extensive bibliography rounds up the volume.

This book may be useful to all students, health authorities, built environment biologists and evaluators, and lab technicians. It aims to help finding a way in the complicated taxonomic world of microscopic fungi.

This book is also available in German language:
Schimmelpilze und deren Bestimmung

Book review: Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 130 (2), 2014 top ↑

Given the increasing importance that moulds play in industrial processes, as agents of human disease such as allergies and asthma, and as agents of destruction in agriculture, it is timely that this practical laboratory guide appears for the reader. The book is a well-written, comprehensive basic introduction into moulds of a wide range of types and geographic importance. The reader is invited to peruse the book with no necessary previous knowledge of fungi or moulds. Relevant and detailed information on mycological taxonomy, and the fundamentals of mycology are presented in the early pages to provide to the reader a framework for review. The section devoted to mould-relevant methodologies provides even the most novice laboratory reader with a range of approaches to characterize moulds. This section is quite useful and really quite up to date considering the rapid advancement of a range of immunological, chemical, microscopic and metagenomic approaches now available for characterizing these interesting organisms. The reader is invited to delve deeper into these areas using a range of hyperlinks provided for further review, and the authors smartly stop short of attempting to review all of the most recent methods and approaches developed for characterization of moulds. The authors provide a basic account of microscopic and culture based methods that could permit even readers at the middle school and high school level to complete experiments and characterization of moulds. Given their increasing importance in a range of industrial processes, this may be of interest for a student interested in advanced mould characterization for a science project. The authors provide basic recipes for a range of culture media that can also be purchased commercially if of interest, and they provide information on stains that are useful for mould characterization via microscopy. Basic morphological characters are then reviewed, along with the presentation of a decision tree that is useful for mould characterization. A wealth of information is provided to the reader in the areas of mycological toxin production, economically important mould species, and ecological approaches for identifi- cation and isolation. The authors stop short in making these sections extensive, but this is welcomed in a basic guide. They provide ample information to get the reader started. Some information is provided to the reader on the microscopic identification of specific structures, requiring dissecting, light, and even the use of the phase contrast microscope. The reader will want to review microscopic techniques and approaches in more detail elsewhere, especially for digital capture of features. The plates provided in the book are described in excellent detail and provide the reader with a feel for the main and some of the detailed characteristics and features described in the key section. With a little practice, the novice microbiologist should garner an appreciation for the broad diversity of moulds, and for their morpho- logical characteristics that permit them to be such successful opportunists.

Rachel T. Noble, University of North Carolina

Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science, 130(2), 2014, p. 72

Table of Contents top ↑

I. INTRODUCTION 1
1. Of fungi and man 1
2. How to use this book 3
II. FUNDAMENTALS OF MYCOLOGY 5
1. What are fungi? 5
2. Morphology and reproduction 6
2.1 Vegetative organs 6
2.1.1 The thallus 6
2.1.2 Vegetative structures 7
2.2 Reproductive organs 10
2.2.1 Asexual reproduction 11
2.2.2 Sexual reproduction 12
III. TAXONOMY 15
1. Phylogenetics, systematics, classification, taxonomy 15
2. The 7 kingdoms and the new fungal taxonomy 15
3. Protista and Chromista 17
3.1 Oomycota 17
4. Fungi 18
4.1 Zygomycota 18
4.1.1 Zygomycetes 18
4.2 Ascomycota 19
4.3 Basidiomycota 20
4.3.1 Ustilagomycotina (smuts) 20
4.3.2 Pucciniomycotina (rusts) and Agaricomycotina (mushrooms) 21
4.4 Anamorphic fungi (mitotic fungi) 21
5. Polyphasic Taxonomy 22
IV. THE IDENTIFICATION OF MOULDS 25
1. General considerations 25
2. Morphological characteristics 25
3. Chemotaxonomic and molecular biology techniques 25
V. WORKING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF MOULDS IN PURE CULTURE 27
1. General comments 27
1.1 Observation of morphological features 27
1.2 Identification by means of (dichotomous or synoptic) keys 28
1.3 Safe handling of moulds 28
2. Microscopy 29
2.1 Direct microscopy 29
2.2 Pure cultures 29
VI. CULTURE AND MOUNTING MEDIA 31
1. Culture media 31
2. Mounting media 33
3. Fluorescence microscopy 33
3.1 DAPI nuclear staining 33
3.2 Cell wall staining with calcofluor 33
VII. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS 35
1. Zygomycota 35
2. Teleomorphic Ascomycota 38
3. Anamorphic Ascomycota and Basidiomycota 40
3.1 Conidiogenesis 41
4. Spores: colour and shape 46
5. Conidial chains 47
VIII. IDENTIFICATION KEYS 49
1. Identification of moulds sporulating in pure culture 49
2. Identification of moulds: decision tree 50
3. Main key 51
3.1 Zygomycota (Mucorales, Mortierellales, Zoopagales) 52
3.2 Ascomycota 58
3.3 Anamorphic Ascomycota and Basidiomycota 66
3.3.1 Coelomycetes 66
3.3.2 Hyphomycetes 68
IX. COMMON MOULD GENERA 89
X. GLOSSARY 137
XI. ECOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUNGI 153
1. Direct detection in environmental samples 153
2. Isolation in pure culture 153
2.1 Dilution series 153
2.2 Baiting 153
2.3 Single spore cultures 154
2.4 Surface sterilisation of plant tissues 154
3. Adaptation of fungi to the ecosystem 154
3.1 Temperature requirements 154
3.2 Light requirements and adaptation 155
4. Morphological and physiological adaptation 155
XII. MOULDS AND HEALTH 157
1. Mycotoxins 157
1.1 Introduction 157
1.2 Mycotoxin detection 159
2. Health hazards caused by mycotoxicoses 159
3. Mycoses 161
3.1 Hypersensitivity reactions 161
3.2 Mycoses 162
XIII. REFERENCES 165
XIV. INDEX 183