Leif Tibell:

Crustose mazaediate lichens and the Mycocaliciaceae in temperate South America

1998. 107 pages, 32 figures, 14x22cm, 270 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 71)

ISBN 978-3-443-58050-6, paperback, price: 46.00 €

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lichencrustosemazaediaMycocaliciaceaeSouth America


Synopsis top ↑

A taxonomic revision of crustose caliciod lichens and fungi occurring in the cool and temperate areas of South America comprising 47 species in 7 genera is presented. Most of the species are lichenized, have passive spore dispersal, and belong to Acroscyphus, Calicium and Cyphelium in Caliciaceae and Chaenotheca in Coniocybaceae. Species in Mycocaliciaceae, included in Chaenothecopsis, Mycocalicium and Phaeocalicium are also frequent. They are parasites or saprobes on vasculaI plants and algae, or comrnensalistic on lichens. A few species of Microcalicium in Microcaliciaceae also occur. These lichens and fungi have previously been very neglected in the area. Calicium isabellinum, Chaenotheca australis, C. confusa, Chaenothecopsis arthoniae, C. australis, C. cinerea, C. lecanactidis, Mycocalicium anomalum and Phaeocalicium fuegensis are described as new. Eleven further species are new to South America, and several species are new to Argentina and Chile. Most of the species occur in oldgrowth Nothofagus forests, and are like in other areas sensitive to forest exploitation. A high proportion of the species (74%) also occur in the Northern hemjsphere, only three (6%) species are austral, and eight (17%) are endemic.

Rev.:Bibliography of Systematic Mycology (BSM) 10(8), Oct.1999+Index of Fungi top ↑

The seemingly elaborate nature of this title reflects the change in the treatment of the calicioid fungi: previously, all were considered to belong to one order, the Caliciales. This is now revealed to be polyphyletic and the remarkable morphological similarities of the mazaediate "pin-lichens" to be the product of convergent evolution. The author is the acknowledged expert on calicioid lichens and, although the account is regional, due to the wide distribution of the species it is also of significance for the northern temperate regions. The area covered is essentially southern Chile and adjacent Argentina but the emphasis is on Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia where these lichenized fungi are most frequent. After a brief introduction covering morphology, chemistry, ecology and biogeography the main part of the work is, as the title suggests, a taxonomic account. It includes eight genera in four separate families, and 47 species are treated in detail. Of these, nine are new to science and 11 new to South America. However, nearly three-quarters of the species included occur in the northern hemisphere and only eight are endemic. The taxa are arranged systematically and keys to species are provided at the beginning of each generic treatment. For each species there is a morphological description, habitat, distribution and details of the specimens examined. A welcome element of the morphological description is the provision of details of the anamorph where known. Distribution maps are provided for most species. New taxa are illustrated with micrographs and details of spore ontogeny and surface ornamentation clarified using TEM and SEM photographs. Eight of the new species are illustrated with colour photographs in a plate near the beginning.
These tiny lichenized, lichenicolous or saprobic fungi occur in rather specialized habitats. In the northern hemisphere they are most common on the dry side of trees where they are not rained on directly. It is not clear from the present work whether this is also the case in South America but the preference for old trees and exposed lignum would suggest that this is so. The large number of northern temperate species occurring would also indicate that these fungi are evolutionarily ancient amongst the ascomycetes: a hypothesis perhaps supported by their possession of the unique "prototunicate" ascus. However, as TIBELL points out, the similar percentage of widespread Cladonia species (usually considered to be a more recent group) found in South America runs contrary to such a conclusion. The author has produced other regional studies of calicioid fungi - all. like the present work, of high quality and value This one provides the first overall treatment of these fungi in temperate South America and will surely encourage local lichenologists to look out for these fascinating organisms, confident that they will now be able to identify them.
J. C. David
Bibliography of Systematic Mycology (BSM) 10(8), Oct. 1999 and Index of Fungi (IF) 6

Contents top ↑

Summary 7
Introduction 9
Material and methods 9
Morphology and anatomy 10
Chemistry 14
Ecological and biogeographical observations 14
Key to the genera 15
Caliciaceae 16
Acroscyphus 16
1. Acroscyphus sphaerophoroides 16
Calicium 17
Key to the species 18
1. C. abietinum 18
2. C. adaequatum 19
3. C. adspersum ssp. australe 20
4. C. glaucellum 21
5. C. isabellinum 24
6. C. lenticulare 27
7. C. salicinum 29
8. C. trabinellum 30
9. C. tricolor 31
10. C. viride 32
Cyphelium 33
1. C. inquinans 34
Coniocybaceae 36
Chaenotheca 36
Key to the species 37
1. C. australis 38
2. C. brachypoda 40
3. C. brunneola 42
4. C. chlorella 44
5. C. chrysocephala 44
6. C. confusa 46
7. C. ferruginea 51
8. C. gracillima 52
9. C. hispidula 53
10. C. olivaceorufa 55
11. C. sphaerocephala 56
12. C. stemonea 57
13. C. trichialis 58
14. C. xyloxena 61
Mycocaliciaceae 62
Chaenothecopsis 62
Key to the species 63
1. C. arthoniae 64
2. C. australis 66
3. C. brevipes 70
4. C. cinerea 70
5. C. debilis 73
6. C. haematopus 74
7. C. lecanactidis 76
8. C. nana 78
9. C. nigra 79
10. C. pusilla 81
11. C. sanguinea 83
12. C. savonica 84
13. C. tasmanica 86
14. C. vainioana 87
15. C. viridireagens 88
Mycocalicium 89
Key to the species 91
1. M. albonigrum 91
2. M. anomalum 92
3. M. subtile 94
Phaeocalicium 95
1. fuegensis 96
Microcalciaceae 96
Microcalicium 98
1. M. arenarium 99
2. M. disseminatum 101
Acknowledgements 103
References 103
Index 105