Nikolaus Hoffmann; Josef Hafellner:

Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora (Ascomycotina)

[A revision of lichenicolous genera of the families Guignardia and Physalospora (Ascomycotina)]

2000. 181 Seiten, 37 Abbildungen, 9 Tafeln, 14x22cm, 380 g
Language: Deutsch

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 77)

ISBN 978-3-443-58056-8, brosch., price: 56.00 €

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Inhaltsbeschreibung top ↑

Die flechtenbewohnenden (lichenicolen) Pyrenomyceten mit hyalinen, einzelligen Ascosporen wurden lange Zeit in die beiden Gattungen Guignardia und Physalospora gestellt. Im Zuge der vorliegenden Revision stellten sie sich als Ansammlung heterogener Pilze dar. Kein Einziger konnte in den Gattungen Guignardia oder Physalospora verbleiben. Genauer behandelt werden die Gattungen Lichenochora, Myxophora, Obryzum, Roselliniella, Sagediopsis, Telogalla, Verrucaria und Zwackhiomyces. Die formal ähnlichen Gattungen Biciliopsis, Guignardia, Gyropthorus, Physalospora und Thamnogalla werden zu Vergleichszwecken charakterisiert. Eine Gattung, sowie sieben Arten werden neu beschrieben. Elf neue Kombinationen werden vorgeschlagen.
Aus jeder der eingehend behandelten Gattungen ist von zumindest einer Art ein Fruchtkörperlängsschnitt zeichnerisch und vielfach auch fotografisch dargestellt. Die Pilze werden detailliert beschrieben und ibre wichtigsten mikroskopischen Merkmale (Asci, Ascosporen und gegebenenfalls interascale Filamente) werden in Zeichnungen dargestellt. Weiters werden die Lebensweise und Wirtsspezifität der untersuchten Arten, sowie die systematische Stellung der Gattungen vergleichend diskutiert. Ein Bestimmungsschlüssel für alle ausführlich behandelten Pilze wurde entworfen.

Synopsis top ↑

Traditionally the lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) pyrenomycetes with hyaline, single-celled ascospores have been included into the genera Guignardia and Physalospora. This generic concept proofed to be highly unnatural. The group comprises members of several genera representing various orders of ascomycetes none of them belonging to neither Guignardia nor hysalospora. In the present paper the genera Lichenochora, Myxophora, Obryzum, Roselliniella, Sagediopsis, Telogalla, Verrucaria, and Zwackhiomyces are treated in detail. The formally similar genera Biciliopsis, Guignardia, Gyrophthorus, Physalospora and Thamnogalla are characterised for comparison.
One genus and seven species are described as new to science. Eleven new combinations of fungal names are proposed. Hand drawings of median sections of fruit-bodies of at least one representative of each of the genera are presented. The species are described in detail and drawings of their most important microscopic features (asci, ascospores, interascal filaments) are given. Additionally the paper contains several photos of microscopic details. The biological behaviour and the host-specifity of the fungi, as well as the systematic position of the genera are discussed in comparison. A key for the lichenicolous species is provided.

Rev.: Bibliography of Systematic Mycology vol. 7 top ↑

This initially unpromising title belies its real value, as anyone who is familiar with lichenicolous fungi will discover. There have been a number of keys to, and compilations on, lichenicolous fungi published over the past twenty years that have brought this overlooked field to a wider audience (HAWKSWORTH, 1983; CLAUZADE, DIEDERICH & ROUX, 1989). These works have not been able to deal with the many uncertainties in taxonomic position of the species and it has been HAFELLNER and his team in Graz that have steadily resolved a large number of these problematic taxa. The present work is another excellent, thorough and invaluable contribution. It is probably best summarized by the authors themselves when they describe the study as a `revision of the lichenicolous pyrenomycetes with hyaline, non-septate ascospores'.

Introductory material is brief: there is an outline of the taxonomic problems surrounding the lichenicolous taxa assigned to these genera, most of whose species are not associated with lichens, as well as a history of the usage of these genera. This is followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the taxonomic characters and their value, the ecology and host specificity of the species treated in the revision.

The taxonomic part includes a survey of the orders in which the treated taxa are included, following the classification provided by Edn 8 of the Dictionary of the Fungi. A key is provided to all known non-lichenized lichenicolous fungi with a hyaline or dark pigmented excipulum and hyaline, aseptate ascospores. This does not include all the species covered in the work, e.g. Lichenochora aprica and Zwackhiomyces calcariae, for these are 1-septate; it also includes one genus, Sarcopyrenia, which is not mentioned again by the authors. A useful feature of the key is that significant characters are underlined. This is followed by accounts of the thirteen genera included: Biciliopsis, Guignardia, Gyrophthorus, Physalospora and Thamnogalla are covered briefly and the remainder are dealt with in more detail.

The first and unsurprising result is that neither Guignardia nor Physalospora is considered to contain any lichenicolous taxa: both these genera are more plant-pathogenic or found on substrata more typical of fungi. The lichenicolous species formerly assigned to these genera are now distributed across seven genera including one new to science, Telogalla. There is a useful discussion on the systematic position of the parasite of Thamnolia ­ Thamnogalla ­ which concludes that it seems closest to the Stictidaceae in the Ostropales. However, the authors do not propose this definitively. One of the longstanding uncertainties mentioned above is the genus Paralaestadia, for which the authors establish the correct author citation, `(Sacc. & D. Sacc.) Vain.' and typify it on Verrucaria verrucicola Wedd. This does, though, have a peculiar consequence in that this species was never formally combined into the genus Paralaestadia, but this is possible under the ICBN. The other consequence is that, based on the authors' examination of Verrucaria verrucicola Wedd., Paralaestadia is identical to Lichenochora and, as such, becomes an earlier synonym. They have rightly proposed the conservation of the latter name. The other species in Paralaestadia, P. fimbriatae Vain., is found to be identical to the coelomycete Lichenosticta alcicornaria, and thus the authors effectively dispose of any lingering doubts over the value of the genus.

The status of Obryzum and, up till now, its single species, O. corniculatum, has never been clear and it has been regarded as somewhat anomalous. In the present work not only is the genus accepted but a new species, O. friesii, is added and its distinctness confirmed by the retention of the family Obryzaceae. They reject Eriksson's view that the genus should be placed in the Gnomoniaceae since the asci of Obryzum lack the chitinoid ring in the ascus apex that is characteristic of the latter family. The genus Telogalla is here introduced for a gall-forming lichenicolous fungus that occurs on Xanthoria parietina. This is established for Guignardia olivieri and is placed in the Verrucariaceae, on the face of it, perhaps, an unexpected position but the hyaline exciple is, as the authors point out, not that unusual a feature in the family. Also unexpected is the transfer of one Physalospora species to Zwackhiomyces, a lichenicolous, dothidealean genus with 1-septate ascospores. HOFFMAN & HAFELLNER have broadened the definition of the genus to include species with aseptate (or usually aseptate) ascospores since in all other respects Physalospora lecanorae is consistent with Zwackhiomyces.

Even within the section on excluded taxa the surprises continue, with the lichenicolous `Laestadia' conductrix and `Laestadia' solorinae being transferred to Epibryon, a genus mainly containing bryicolous fungi. The detailed discussion associated with these species explains the biological and morphological reasons for these transfers.

The revision is completed with references and an index to taxa (not entirely complete as there is no entry for Spolverinia, for instance). It is well illustrated with some fine line-drawings and a set of micrographs of variable quality at the back. It should be said, however, that these are notoriously difficult organisms to section. As the title suggests, this work is entirely in German except for a summary in English, but because it is a valuable contribution, for those interested in lichenicolous fungi it is well worth making the effort to read it.

J.C. David

Bibliography of Systematic Mycology vol. 7

Inhaltsverzeichnis top ↑

Summary 6
Zusammenfassung 7

1. Einleitung 8
1. Problemstellung 8
2. Die Geschichte der Gattungen Guignardia und Physalospora 8
3. Dank 10
II. Verwendete Begriffe, Abkürzungen und Darstellungsweisen 11
I. Verwendete Begriffe 11
2. Verwendete Abkürzungen 12
3. Das Zitieren von Herbaretiketten 12
4. Zu den Verbreitungsangaben 13
5. Zu den Abbildungen 13
6. Die Nomenklatur der Wirtsflechten 13
III. Material und Methodik 13
1. Material 13
2. Methodik 14
3. Messen und Angeben gemessener Werte 15
4. Verwendete Reagenzien 16
IV. Untersuchte Merkmale und deren Wertigkeit 16
1. Bau und Pigmentierung der Fruchtkörperwand 16
2. Hamathecium 17
3. Ascusbau und -funktion 18
4. Ascosporen 18
5. Substrathyphen 19
6. Mitospore Stadien 19
7. Reaktion mit Lugol-Reagenz 19
V. Die Biologie der Arten 20
1. Die Lebensweise der Arten 20
2. Wirtsspezifität 21
I. Systematische Stellung der bearbeiteten Genera 23
II. Schlüssel 25
III. Formal ähnliche und/oder solche Gattungen, die mit den in dieser
Arbeit näher behandelten jemals in Verbindung gebracht wurden 29
Biciliopsis 29
Guignardia 31
Gyrophthorus 34
Physalospora 39
Thamnogalla 41
IV. Die austührlich behandelten Genera und ihre Arten in alphabetischer
Reihenfolge 47
Lichenochora 47
Lichenochora aprica 50
Lichenochora collematum 53
Lichenochora verrucicola 55
Myxophora 60
Myxophora apotheclicola 63
Myxophora leptogiophila 65
Myxophora ovolispora 70
Myxophora placynthii 72
Myxophora tetraspora 74
Obryzum 80
Obryzum cornicalatum 82
Obryzum friesii 87
Roselliniella 91
Roselliniella microthelia 93
Sagediopsis 99
Sagediopsis aspiciline 102
Telogalla 106
Telogalla olivieri 109
Verrucaria 115
Verrucaria ahlesiana 115
Zwackhiomyces 120
Zwackhiomyces calcariae 122
Zwackhiomyces lecanorae 124
V. Auszuschließende und nicht gesehene Arten 132
Guignardia aegypliaca 132
Guignardia cahirensis 134
Physalospora cladoniae 134
Guignardia coccocarpiae 136
Physalospora collemae 136
Laestadia conductrix 137
Guignardia fimbrialae 143
Verrucaria fuscula 145
Physalospora jonaspidis 145
Guignardia psoromoides 146
Spolverinia punctum 147
Laestadia solorinae 148
Laestadia prasiolae 151
Spolverinia valesiaca 153
Physalospora xanthoriae 153
Literatur 155
Index der erwähnten Arten und Gattungen 169
Legenden zu den fotografischen Abbildungen 180
Fotografische Abbildungen 182