John A. Elix:

A Revision of the Lichen Genus Paraparmelia Elix & J. Johnst.

2001. 224 pages, 126 figures, 14x22cm, 440 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 80)

ISBN 978-3-443-58059-9, paperback, price: 76.00 €

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FlechteParaparmelia ElixLichen Genus Paraparmelia


Synopsis top ↑

The lichen genus Paraparmelia Elix 8: J. Johnst. (Parmeliaceae) is revised. A key and descriptions for the 83 species are given, and the synonymy, chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomic affinities of each species are discussed.

Nine new species are described: Paraparmelia crawfordensis, P. gemmulifera, P. fynbosiana, P. juxtata, P. oveana, P. tzaneenensis, P. valdeta, P. wirthii and P. xerica. In addition, the following new combinations are made: Canoparmelia alabamensis (Hale &: McCull.) Elix, C. rupicola (Lynge) Elix, Paraparmelia barda (Brusse) Elix, P. pristiloba (Brusse) Elix and Xanthoparmelia lecanoracea (Müll. Arg.) Elix.

Rev.: Mycotaxon vol. 84, Jan. 2003 top ↑

With so many parmelioid lichens described, revisions of the various segregated genera have become more and more essential. Paraparmelia was introduced in 1986 for species with a grey upper surface, narrow lobes with no marginal cilia, andatranorin in the upper cortex. The species are primarily saxicolous, but some can be rarely terricolous. They can be viewed as usnic-acid deficient Xanthoparmelia's with which they share the same cell-wall polysaccharides and conidial types, and this close relationship is supported by mtDNA sequence data. However, regardless of the issue of generic concepts, such carefully worked revisions are essential to an understanding of the species. Eighty-three species are accepted, a massive increase over the 35 included when the genus name was introduced; nine of the species are described as new here. Most occur in Australia or southern Africa, and none are known from North and South America nor from Europe. I found the introductory sections especially helpful; this includes comparisons with other genera, summaries of species showing particular features, geographical distributions (with species known from particular countries or regions), and detailed information on the secondary compounds. A clear key is provided, although the emphasis on chemical characters may cause difficulties for those without easy access to thin-layer chromatographic facilities. For the accepted species, full details of places of publication and types are provided, and there are also entries for chemistry, previously published illustrations, distribution and habitat, and notes. Lists of specimens studied, distribution maps, and first-rate half-tone photographs are also provided. Twelve species are excluded from the genus, most being transferred to Canoparmelia because of differences in the cell-wallpolysaccharides; others are referred to Karoowia or Xanthoparmelia. This carefully executed revision will be needed by all students of Southern Hemisphere macrolichens. Mycotaxon vol. 84, Jan. 2003

Rev.: Mycotaxon vol. LXXXV, January-March 2002 top ↑

Mireia Giralt has been studying the Rinodina species in the Iberian Peninsula for over ten years, and has published some 13 papers on the genus to date. This new book represents a synthesis of her knowledge, and brings data on species growing on rock, trees, mosses, and lichens together. Seventy-six species of Rinodina and two of Rinodinella are accepted, along with "Buellia" parvula of uncertain generic position. The Iberian Peninsula is thus amongst the richest region for these lichens so far discovered. Information is also presented on 11 excluded species, mostly based on past misdeterminations. The species are keyed out by habitat, something which always worries me as it means that if a species turns up on a different substrate it may not be correctly identified. For each species, full bibliographic citations and types are provided, but not basionyms and synonyms unless used in recent years; full synonymies would perhaps have made the work more comprehensive but at the same time would have increased the length substantially. Details of where further information can be sought is, however, provided, as are descriptions, notes on chemistry, observations and lists of specimens examined. Ascospore sketches are collected together in the final series of plates, but no habitat photographs or micrographs are provided; again, both would have been helpful, especially to show variation in ascospores as they mature, but this would have involved considerably more work. That the work is in English will greatly extend its audience and use around the Mediterranean, but I hope that this will not limit its use in the Iberian Peninsula itself. This is another example of the high level of understanding lichenology in Spain has reached, and the author is to be thanked for synthesizing her studies and making them more readily accessible.

Dr. David L. Hawksworth

Rev.: Mycotaxon vol. LXXXV, January-March 2002

Contents top ↑

Summary 8
Introduction 9
History of the Taxonomy of Paraparmelia 9
Intergeneric Comparisons 12
Interspecific Variation - Morphology and Anatomy 14
Interspecific Variation - Chemistry 23
Geographic Affinities 30
Key to the Species of Paraparmelia 32
Paraparmelia - the Genus 39
The Species
1. P. adusta 39
2. P. agamalis 41
3. P. annexa 44
4. P. aranaea 47
5. P. arcana 48
6. P. arida 50
7. P. asilaris 52
8. P. astricta 53
9. P. atrocarnodes 56
10. P. ballingalliae 60
11. P.barda 61
12. P. basutoensis 62
13. P. bourgeanica 65
14. P. brownlieae 66
15. P. cerussata 68
16. P. colensoica 71
17. P. columbariensis 72
18. P. condyloides 74
19. P. conranensis 75
20. P. crawfordensis 78
21. P. dwaasbergensis 81
22. P. erebea 82
23. P. fausta 84
24. P. fumarprotocetrarica 87
25. P. fynbosiana 87
26. P. gemmulifera 88
27. P. gregaria 90
28. P. huttonii 92
29. P. hypoconstictica 94
30. P. inconspicua 95
31. P. inops 98
32. P. inselbergia 99
33. P. ischnoides 101
34. P. juxtata 103
35. P. leucophaea 106
36. P. lithophila 107
37. P. lithophiloides 110
38. P. lividica 113
39. P. lumbschii 116
40. P. maritima 116
41. P. molybdiza 118
42. P. mongaensis 121
43. P. murina 125
44. P. neomongaensis 129
45. P. neoquintaria 131
46. P. nimbicola 135
47. P. norcarnodes 136
48. P. norlobaridonica 138
49. P. numinbahensis 140
50. P. oveana 141
51. P. perfissa 143
52. P. pinguiacida 144
53. P. poeltii 148
54. P. pristiloba 149
55. P. prolata 151
56. P. pudens 152
57. P. roderickii 154
58. P. rugulosa 155
59. P. saginata 158
60. P. sammyi 161
61. P. sargentii 162
62. P. scabrosinita 163
63. P. schistacea 166
64. P. scotophylla 167
65. P. sitiens 170
66. P. spodochroa 171
67. P. subalpina 174
68. P. sublineola 176
69. P. subrugulosa 177
70. P. subspodochroa 178
71. P. subtortula 182
72. P. subtropica 183
73. P. tortula 186
74. P. tropica 189
75. P. tzaneenensis 191
76. P. usitata 192
77. P. valdeta 195
78. P. vanderbylii 196
79. P. violacea 198
80. P. wirthii 200
81. P. xanthomelanoides 202
82. P. xerica 203
83. P. yamblaensis 205
Excluded Species 207
Acknowledgements 211
References 212
Taxonomic Index 217
Index of Figures 223