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Laurens B. Sparrius:

A monograph of Enterographa and Sclerophyton

2004. 141 pages, 58 figures, 2 tables, 15x23cm, 310 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 89)

ISBN 978-3-443-58068-1, paperback, price: 48.00 €

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Keywords

SclerophytonenterographylichenmorphologySklerophytenEnterographieFlechteMorphologie

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

A monograph of the lichen genus Enterographa (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) is presented. In its new circumscription, the genus comprises 35 species, including corticolous, foliicolous, saxicolous and lichenicolous species. It is mainly distributed in the tropics and shows a high degree of endemism in especially the foliicolous species. Spore ontogeny, size, septation, excipulum structure, secondary compounds and thallus structure proved to be the most important characters for delimitation of the species and genera. The genus Sclerophyton (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) is enlarged to accommodate species with hyaline, macrocephalic spores, relatively thick septa, clavate-cylindrical asci and ascomata in pseudostromata formerly included in Enterographa and comprises 14 species. The genus Sclerophytonomyces (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) is reinstated to accomodate species with wide paraphysoids and pigmented ascospores. The genus Llimonaea (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) is enlarged with two species formerly included in Sclerophyton that possess ascomata with a well-developed and carbonized excipulum and pigmented ascospores.

The following 18 new species are described: Dirina insulae-howensis, Enterographa albopunctata, E. elixii, E. kalbii, E. pertusarioides Groenhart ex Sparrius, E. seawardii Lücking & Henssen in Sparrius, E. sipmanii, E. tropica, E. zephyri, Sclerophyton aptrootii, S. desertorum, S. fluorescens, S. madagascariense, S. murex Egea & Torrente ex Sparrius, S. murifome, S. syncesioides, S. trinidadense and S. vertex.

The following 10 new combinations are proposed: Dirina follmannii (C. W. Dodge) Sparrius, D. neozelandica (Redinger) Sparrius, Enterographa multilocularis (Müll. Arg.) Sparrius, Llimonaea californica (Tuck.) Sparrius, L. cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius, Mazosia leptosticta (Nyl.) Sparrius, Sarcographa maculata (A.W. Archer) Aptroot & Sparrius, Sclerophyton extenuatum (Nyl.) Sparrius, S. seriale (Ach.) Sparrius and Sclerophytonomyces circumscriptus (Taylor) Sparrius & P. James. Enterographa vezdai Sparrius is a nomen novum for E. effusa Vézda.

Review: Bibliography of Systematic Mycology and Index of Fungi top ↑

In this new circumscription of the lichenized genus Enterographa Fée 1824 (Arthoniales, Roccellaceae), 35 species are recognised, of which eight are new, as well as one new combination and one new name. The closely related Sclerophyton Eschw. 1824 is redefined and enlarged to 14 species, of which nine are new and two are new combinations. The monotypic Sclerophytonomyces Cif. & Tomas. 1953 is reinstated and validated. Two new species of Dirina Fr. 1825 are described, and an Enterographa combined into it, while two species of Sclerophyton are transferred to Llimonaea Egea & Torrente 1991. Finally, 27 species of Enterographa and five of Sclerophyton are excluded, and two new combinations, in Mazosia A. Massal. 1854 and Sarcographa Fée 1824, are introduced. Numerous new synonymies are proposed and lectotypifications applied.

The preliminary material is brief: an extended Abstract is followed by Introduction, Historical background, Material, Methods, Morphology (vegetative thallus, ascomata, asci, ascospores, conidiomata), Diagnostic chemistry, and Ecology and phytogeography. Morphological characters were studied, and spore ontogeny, size, septation, structure of the excipulum and thallus structure, as well as secondary compounds, were found to be most significant for defining taxa. Species were generally found to differ by unique combinations of morphology and ecology, as detailed in the matrix of Table 2. A Key to the genera (in the Roccellaceae) precedes the generic treatments. Acknowledgements and References are followed by 58 black-and-white plates of high magnification but (as a result) of varying clarity and resolution. A number of spore drawings may also be found scattered throughout the text, though this arrangement (and the quality) is less useful than in the Strigula text above. Finally, there is a comprehensive Index of names, though I was unable to establish the relevance of emboldened entries.

K. Hudson

Bibliography of Systematic Mycology and INdex of Fungi

Contents top ↑


ABSTRACT 6
1. INTRODUCTION 8
2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 8
3. MATERIALS 9
4. METHODS 9
5. MORPHOLOGY10
6. DIAGNOSTIC CHEMISTRY 14
7. ECOLOGY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY 14
8. KEY TO THE GENERA 20
9. ENTEROGRAPHA FÉE 21
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ENTEROGRAPHA 22
Enterographa albopunctata Sparrius 25
Enterographa anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger 25
Enterographa angustissima (Vain.) R. Sant. 27
Enterographa bartlettii Sérus. 28
Enterographa batistae Lücking & Sérus. 29
Enterographa bella R. Sant. 30
Enterographa byssoidea Lücking 31
Enterographa compunctula (Nyl.) Redinger 31
Enterographa crassa (DC.) Fée32
Enterographa deslooveri Sérus. 35
Enterographa divergens (Müll. Arg.) Redinger 36
Enterographa elaborata (Leight.) Coppins & P. James 37
Enterographa elixii Sparrius 39
Enterographa falcata Lücking & V. Wirth 40
Enterographa foliicola Lücking & Matzer 41
Enterographa hutchinsiae (Leight.) A. Massal. 41
Enterographa kalbii Sparrius 43
Enterographa leucolyta (Nyl.) Redinger 44
Enterographa mazosiae R. Sant. ex Matzer & R. Sant. 45
Enterographa micrographa (Nyl.) Redinger46
Enterographa multilocularis (Müll. Arg.) Sparrius 47
Enterographa multiseptata R. Sant. 48
Enterographa pallidella (Nyl.) Redinger 49
Enterographa perez-higaredae Herrera-Campos & Lücking 51
Enterographa pertusarioides Groenhart ex Sparrius 52
Enterographa pitardii (B. de Lesd.) Redinger 53
Enterographa quassiaecola Fée 54
Enterographa seawardii Lücking & Henssen 56
Enterographa sipmanii Sparrius 57
Enterographa sorediata Coppins & P. James 58
Enterographa subgelatinosa (Stirt.) Redinger 59
Enterographa subserialis (Nyl.) Redinger 60
Enterographa tropica Sparrius 61
Enterographa vezdai Sparrius 63
Enterographa zephyri Sparrius.64
10. SCLEROPHYTON ESCHW. 65
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SCLEROPHYTON 67
Sclerophyton aptrootii Sparrius 68
Sclerophyton desertorum Sparrius 69
Sclerophyton elegans Eschw. 70
Sclerophyton extenuatum (Nyl.) Sparrius 71
Sclerophyton fluorescens Sparrius72
Sclerophyton madagascariense Sparrius 73
Sclerophyton murex Egea & Torrente ex Sparrius 74
Sclerophyton muriforme Sparrius 75
Sclerophyton rostratum Egea & Torrente 76
Sclerophyton seriale (Ach.) Sparrius 77
Sclerophyton stigmaticum (Krempelh.) Sparrius 78
Sclerophyton syncesioides Sparrius 79
Sclerophyton trinidadense Sparrius 80
Sclerophyton vertex Sparrius 81
11. SPECIES PLACED IN OTHER GENERA 84
SCLEROPHYTONOMYCES CIF. & TOMAS. 84
Sclerophytonomyces circumscriptus (Taylor) Sparrius &
P. James 85
DIRINA FR. .87
Dirina insulae-howensis Sparrius 87
Dirina follmannii (C.W. Dodge) Sparrius 88
Dirina neozelandica (Redinger) Sparrius 89
LLIMONAEA EGEA & TORRENTE 90
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LLIMONAEA 90
Llimonaea californica (Tuck.) Sparrius91
Llimonaea cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius 91
12. EXCLUDED AND DOUBTFUL TAXA 92
Enterographa albinea (Nyl.) C. W. Dodge 92
Enterographa atacamensis C.W. Dodge 92
Enterographa capensis A. Massal. 92
Enterographa carassensis (Vain.) Redinger 92
Enterographa carnea (Eckfeldt) R.C. Harris 92
Enterographa chilensis (Zahlbr.) C. W. Dodge 93
Enterographa cyclocarpa (Zahlbr.) Redinger 93
Enterographa dendritica (Leight.) P. James 93
Enterographa effusa (Fée) A. Massal 93
Enterographa fauriei Zahlbr. 93
Enterographa flotowii A. Massal 94
Enterographa fraterculans Müll. Arg. 94
Enterographa frustulosa (Krempelh.) Müll. Arg. 94
Enterographa galactina (Zahlbr.) Redinger 94
Enterographa graphidioides (Leight.) Almb. 94
Enterographa insulana C. Tav. 95
Enterographa italica B. de Lesd. 95
Enterographa pernambucensis Bat. 95
Enterographa pernambucensis var. psychotriae Bat. & H. Maia 95
Enterographa pertricosa Krempelh. 95
Enterographa pseudorufescens (B. de Lesd.) Redinger 95
Enterographa rimata (Flot. ex Nyl.) Zwackh. 96
Enterographa rufescens (Vain.) Redinger 96
Enterographa trypethelioides Müll. Arg. 96
Enterographa vanderbylii (Zahlbr.) Redinger 96
Enterographa verrucarioides (Fée) Müll. Arg. 96
Enterographa zwackhii (Zwackh) A. Massal. 97
Mazosia leptosticta (Nyl.) Sparrius 97
Mazosia ocellata (Nyl.) R.C. Harris 97
Opegrapha zonata Körber 98
Sarcographa elmeri (Vain.) Sipman 98
Sarcographa maculata (A.W. Archer) Aptroot & Sparrius 99
Sclerophyton actinoboloides Zahlbr. 99
Sclerophyton colliculosum Mont. 99
Sclerophyton conspicuum A.W. Archer 99
Sclerophyton dendrizans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. 100
Sclerophyton occidentale Herre100
Stigmatidium diffusum Nyl. 100
Stigmatidium phaeosporellum Nyl. 100
Verrucaria cincta Hepp 100
13. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 102
14. REFERENCES 103
FIGURES 109
INDEX OF NAMES 136