Damien Ertz:

Revision of the corticolous Opegrapha species from the Paleotropics

2009. 176 pages, 124 figures, 14x23cm, 350 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 102)

ISBN 978-3-443-58081-0, paperback, price: 73.00 €

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Synopsis top ↑

Volume 102 of Bibliotheca Lichenologica presents a revision of the corticolous paleotropical lichen species of Opegrapha (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). Forty-five species are accepted, of which eight are new to science: Opegrapha bisokeana sp. nova, O. borbonica sp. nova, O. deblockiae sp. nova, O. dekeselii sp. nova, O. maldiveana sp. nova, O. nyungweana sp. nova, O. subdimidiata sp. nova and O. ugandensis sp. nova.

Thirty-one names are considered to be new synonyms of accepted species and six species examined during the study are combined in other genera: Arthonia sororiella comb. Nova (bas. O. sororiella), Enterographa subcervina comb. nova (bas. O. subcervina), Lecanographa martii comb. nova (bas. O. martii), L. rufa comb. nova (bas. O. rufa), L. subnothella comb. nova (bas. O. subnothella) and Patellaria stirtonii comb. nova (bas. O. stirtonii).

Three species previously described as lichens (O. agelaea, O. gregalis and O. nigeriensis) are demonstrated to be lichenicolous fungi. Nine species are considered as doubtful or are excluded from the genus.

The volume also provides a key to all species of lichenized and corticolous Opegrapha from the Paleotropics, that is Africa and Asia.

Review: Acta Botanica Hungarica 52(1-2), 2010 top ↑

The Belgian author was honoured by the Hale Award for his excellent PhD dissertation as announced during IAL6 international lichenological symposium in 2008. His current work is a revision of the Paleotropical corticolous Opegrapha species for which he studied specimens of 19 herbaria, carried out field studies in Bénin, Gabon, Rwanda, Zambia, La Réunion and investigated extra-Paleotropical collections as well.

Among the ca 300 Opegrapha species of the world he found 45 species in the Paleotropics during the revision and discovered 8 species new to science what he described formally in the volume: O. bisokeana, O. borbonica, O. deblockiae, O. dekeseli, O. maldiveana, O. nyungweana, O. subdimidiata and O. ugandensis. The 31 synonym names were established.

The 6 earlier Opegrapha species were placed in other genera and so the following new combinations were published: Arthonia sororiella, Enterographa subcervina, Lecanographa martii, L. rufa, L. subnothella, Patellaria stirtonii. The author also found that 3 of the species (O. agelaea, O. gregalis and O. nigeriensis) must be regarded as lichenicolous ones. All species are listed in the index. Furthermore a key is given to the treated accepted species both for lichenised and lichenicolous ones. The key seems to be easily applicable though for the separation of some species the presence of lichen substances (confluentic acid, norstictic acid, psoromic acid) must be analysed by TLC and this might mean a problem in tropical countries.

The volume is richly illustrated: there are one or more micrographs for each species presenting the fine morphological differences of the fruit-bodies (lirellae). Characters of asci, ascospores and conidia are mostly shown on ink drawings, seldom as microscopic views. Distribution maps are also added to several species. Unfortunately, the knowledge on distribution and ecology is still limited in the case of most of the species.

It is a well and nicely edited volume summarising a lot of new information, very important for studying lichens of tropical areas. Identifying Opegrapha species of sites in various environments by the new key will also increase the knowledge on indicator value of these species.


Acta Botanica Hungarica 52(1-2), 2010

Review: International Lichenological Newsletter 42 (2) top ↑

The knowledge of many crustose lichen genera in the Paleotropics, especially in Africa, is still rather poor. The author of the present monograph has tried to improve this situation by his own collecting trips to Bénin, Gabon, Rwanda, Zambia and La Réunion and now by monographing the corticolous lichenized species of Opegrapha. This monograph is very much done in the classical way using morphological and chemical characters, although the author explains that recent molecular studies might lead to a changed concept of the genus. The genus is used in the traditional circumscription and all available species from the Palaeotropics, with additional types from other parts of the world, have been studied. Lichenicolous species are excluded, but are mentioned especially in cases where they had been described as lichens (e.g. O. agelaea Fée). Finally 45 species are accepted for the region, eight of which are described as new to science. On the other hand, 31 names are found to be synonyms of accepted species, a further six species had to be combined into the genera Arthonia, Enterographa, Lecanographa and Patellaria, and three species previously described as lichens proved to be lichenicolous fungi. All accepted species are fully described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. Some cosmopolitan species (e.g. O. viridis or O. vulgata) are also included here. For every species, the know distribution in the Palaeotropics is mapped; these maps, as well as the fact that a considerable number of accepted species are only known from the type or from two localities far away from each other (e.g. O. bicolor from USA and Rwanda) demonstrate how much has to be done to gain a better knowledge of this genus. However, this book provides a firm foundation on which to build future floristic studies.

The Editor

International Lichenological Newsletter 42 (2)

Review: Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, 12(9), April 2010 top ↑

This is the fifth monographic work in the series on the genera once included in the family Opegraphaceae (see also Torrente & Egea, 1989 and Egea & Torrente, 1994) and currently referred to the family Roccellaceae (see also Sparrius, 2004 and Erz et al., 2005).

In this volume the author evaluates the tropical species from Africa, South-East Asia and Australasia included in the genus Opegrapha based on morphological and chemical characters. Sadly, the treatment is only traditional, with six pages of text discussing the variations of thallus, ascoma, conidioma and chemical characters. For a more modern approach, using molecular methods, we are referred to the author’s collaborative paper in Erz et al. (2009), where it was shown that the genus is polyphyletic and needs to be split into several genera. However, none of those findings are reflected in this treatment. There is no discussion, either, on the current systematic placement of the genus and its relationship with other morphologically very distinct genera in the Roccellaceae. Nevertheless, some specific comparisons to confamilial genera are scattered in the entries under headings of Excipulum (p. 10), Hymenium and hypothecium (p. 11), Asci (pp. 11-12) and Ascospores (pp. 12-13).

In the traditional sense Opegrapha, together with the related Arthonia, is one of the most species-rich genera in the order, with over a thousand specific names once attributed to it, although only around 360 species are recognised in the latest edition of the Dictionary of the Fungi (Kirk et al., 2008). In the current work, the author treats 105 species epithets and, of these, only 45 species are accepted in the genus. However, eight of the species are new to science, mostly as a result of the collecting trips undertaken by the author to the central African countries of Benin, Gabon, Rwanda, Zambia and La Réunion. These fresh collections were supplemented with types and other unnamed material from various countries found in national and private herbaria, e.g. material from Thailand kept at BM. The author includes five keys to enable separation of the species, which have been compiled on the basis of ascospore septation: a very practical approach, though difficult to apply if the material is old or in poor condition.

Following other monographic treatments, the species are discussed in alphabetical order, including synonymy, detailed descriptions, chemistry, distribution and ecology, observations, and figures (124 in total), comprising black and white habitus photographs, ascus and ascospore drawings, and species distribution maps. In addition to the 31 species listed as synonyms, six belong to other genera pertaining to the same order, e.g. Arthonia (Arthoniaceae), Enterographa and Lecanographa (Roccellaceae), and to the order Patellariales: i.e. Patellaria stirtonii, and new combinations are proposed for them. Nine other species are excluded from the genus mostly on the grounds of the types being in poor condition. Despite some of my above misgivings regarding the lack of systematic input and comparisons to similar genera which would have helped beginners, this work is a much-needed descriptive contribution to the tropical species in genus, and follows in the footsteps of the work undertaken by Redinger during the first half of the 20th century.

Begoña Aguirre-Hudson

Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, 12(9), April 2010

Review: Nova Hedwigia vol. 91 issue 3-4 top ↑

Lichenologica series is another step in this process. Being a lichenologists that has difficulties identifying Opegrapha species myself, even in temperate regions, I was very impressed by the work of Ertz. This publication is part of a wider project of the author to understand diversity and evolution of arthonialean fungi. The revision is well done and the keys and descriptions of the species convincing and clear. This is certainly not the last word on the diversity of tropical Opegrapha species, but a great achievement. Ertz accepts forty-five corticolous species in the Paleotropics, of which eight are described as new to science. He also identified over 30 names as synonyms of previously described species. A number of species is excluded from Opegrapha. The discussions and general descriptions of the generic characters are short, but clear and sufficient. The chemical part is rather short, but it seems that the species do not show a large chemical diversity. The illustrations of the species are generally good, habit photographs are given, while a number of drawings of asci and ascospores show micromorphological details. Distribution maps for some species are given that may serve as a stimulus for lichenologists working in tropical countries to fill some of the apparent gaps in our knowledge. This is a well done study and certainly of interest to all lichenologsist working on tropical lichens.

H.T. LUMBSCH, Chicago

Nova Hedwigia vol. 91 issue 3-4

Table of Contents top ↑

Introduction 7
Material and methods 8
The genus Opegrapha 9
Morphology 9
Chemistry 13
Ecology 14
Misidentifications with other genera and specimens in poor condition 15
Key to the paleotropical, corticolous species of Opegrapha 15
Key 1 (ascospores muriform) 16
Key 2 (ascospores 2-septate) 16
Key 3 (ascospores 3-septate) 16
Key 4 (ascospores 4-7-septate) 17
Key 5 (ascospores 8-15-septate) 19
The species 20
Opegrapha adtinens Nyl 20
Opegrapha agelaeotera Vain 21
Opegrapha albocinerea Vain 24
Opegrapha apomelaena A. Massal 27
[Opegrapha arabica (Müll. Arg.) Vain see p. 16]
Opegrapha astraea Tuck 32
Opegrapha bicolor R. C. Harris & Lendemer 36
Opegrapha bisokeana Ertz sp. nova 38
Opegrapha bonplandii Fée 40
Opegrapha borbonica Ertz sp. nova 42
Opegrapha confertula Nyl 45
Opegrapha deblockiae Ertz sp. nova 47
Opegrapha dekeselii Ertz sp. nova 49
Opegrapha diagrapha Ny l52
Opegrapha difficilior Nyl 54
Opegrapha dimidiata Müll. Arg 55
Opegrapha discolor Vain 59
Opegrapha aff. discolor Vain 60
Opegrapha dracaenarum Müll. Arg 62
Opegrapha graphidiza Nyl 64
Opegrapha herbarum Mont. s.l 66
Opegrapha irosina Vain 69
Opegrapha loandensis Nyl 72
Opegrapha longissima Müll. Arg 74
Opegrapha maldiveana Ertz sp. nova 77
Opegrapha aff. maldiveana Ertz 79
Opegrapha medusulina Nyl 80
Opegrapha aff. medusulina Nyl 85
Opegrapha microspora Müll. Arg 85
Opegrapha mozambica Vain 87
Opegrapha nyungweana Ertz sp. nova 90
Opegrapha ochrocheila Nyl 93
Opegrapha robusta Vain 96
Opegrapha semiatra Müll. Arg 99
Opegrapha simplicior (Nyl.) Nyl 104
Opegrapha sorediifera P. James 107
Opegrapha subcentrifuga Nyl 111
Opegrapha subdimidiata Ertz sp. nova 113
Opegrapha aff. subdimidiata Ertz 114
Opegrapha subrimulosa Nyl 115
Opegrapha subvulgata Nyl 118
Opegrapha trilocularis Müll. Arg 121
Opegrapha trochodes Coppins, F. Berger & Ertz 124
Opegrapha ugandensis Ertz sp. nova 126
Opegrapha aff. ugandensis Ertz 128
Opegrapha varia Pers 128
[Opegrapha varians (Müll. Arg.) Vain see p. 16]
Opegrapha vermelhana Vain 133
Opegrapha aff. vermelhana Vain 136
Opegrapha viridis (Ach.) Behlen & Desberger 136
Opegrapha vulgata Ach. s.l. 140
Opegrapha aff. vulgata Ach 143
Species included in other genera 143
Arthonia sororiella (Müll. Arg.) Ertz comb. nov 143
Enterographa subcervina (Zahlbr.) Ertz comb. nov 145
Lecanographa martii (Nyl.) Ertz comb. nov 147
Lecanographa rufa (Müll. Arg.) Ertz comb. nov 149
Lecanographa subnothella (Nyl.) Ertz comb. nov 152
Patellaria stirtonii (Zahlbr.) Ertz comb. nov 155
Lichenicolous species described as lichens 155
Opegrapha agelaea Fée 155
Opegrapha gregalis Vain 157
Opegrapha nigeriensis C.W. Dodge 158
Doubtful or excluded species 161
Opegrapha concatenata Vain 161
Opegrapha consors Vain 162
Opegrapha gigantea Vain 162
Opegrapha inaequalis Fée 162
Opegrapha indica (Räsänen) Upreti & Ajay Singh 162
Opegrapha leptochroma A. Massal 163
Opegrapha negrosina Vain 163
Opegrapha prosodeoides Vain 164
Opegrapha symbiotica Müll. Arg 164
Other types examined 164
Opegrapha exiguella Zahlbr 164
Opegrapha gracilescens Zahlbr 165
Opegrapha grossulina Müll. Arg 165
Opegrapha inalbescens (Stirt.) Müll. Arg 166
Opegrapha lactifera Zahlbr 166
Opegrapha lepidella Nyl 166
Opegrapha subclausa Zahlbr 167
Opegrapha vulgata var. parallela Müll. Arg 167
Types not seen 167
Opegrapha andamanica Upreti & Ajay Singh 167
Opegrapha bengalensis Upreti & Ajay Singh 168
Opegrapha luridescens Jatta 168
Acknowledgements 168
References 169
Index 174