Hannes Hertel:

Gattungseponyme bei Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen

2012. 157 Seiten, 3 Tabellen, 5 Tafeln, 14x23cm, 360 g
Language: Deutsch

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 107)

ISBN 978-3-443-58086-5, brosch., price: 39.00 €

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Gattungseponyme Flechte Pilz Topelia


Inhaltsbeschreibung top ↑

Seit Einführung der binären Nomenklatur wurden und werden viele Gattungen nach Personen benannt. Carl von Linné selbst hatte schon 1737 angemahnt, "die Erinnerung an verdienstvolle Botaniker durch an diese erinnernde Gattungsnamen wach zu halten". Im vorliegenden außergewöhnlichen Band der Reihe "Bibliotheca Lichenologica" werden diese sogenannten Eponyme erstmals für den Bereich der Flechten und lichenicolen Pilze entstehungsgeschichtlich ausführlich behandelt und erklärt.

Dass Eponyme nicht immer leicht zu erkennen sind, zeigen Gattungsnamen, wie z.B. Edrudia, Topelia, Trinathotrema oder Wawea (hinter denen sich die Lichenologen E.D. Rudolph, J. Poelt, Th.H. Nash III und W.A. Weber verbergen). 398 Eponyme bei den Gattungen von Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen werden in diesem Band vorgestellt; jeweils mit dem Zitat ihrer Originalbeschreibung, dem Hinweis auf ihre heutige Position im System und - falls eine solche vorhanden ist - mit der der Originalbeschreibung beigefügten Widmung im Wortlaut.

Knappe biographische Skizzen beleuchten das fachliche Wirken und den Werdegang der geehrten Persönlichkeiten. Die dabei benutzten biographischen Quellen werden zitiert. Dem Verzeichnis vorangestellt findet sich eine Betrachtung über Anzahl der Eponyme entlang der Zeitachse, über die in den Originalbeschreibungen benützten Sprachen und über die asymmetrische Verteilung der Eponyme auf weibliche und männliche Personen. Auch den unterschiedlichen Methoden, Eponyme zu bilden, ist ein Kapitel gewidmet.

Der Band richtet sich nicht nur an Biologen und Botaniker, sondern auch an Leser, die sich für die binäre Nomenklatur bei Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen interessieren.

Review: Acta Botanica Hungarica 54 (3-4). 2012 top ↑

The compilation of generic eponyms of lichens and lichenicolous fungi is based on a precise, detailed and careful research. It is much more than a list of 398 generic names dedicated to outstanding scientists or persons in contact with science or scientists in some way. The volume of 157 pages contains also the indication of original descriptions of the mentioned taxa – scattered in various literature sources and the explanation about the name is quoted. It is emphasised how difficult it is sometimes to identify the person the scientific name based on. The general part (pages 3–7) contains very interesting statistics, historical notes and analysis on the habits concerning to the treatments of names by the various authors. The important bibliographic data of 287 persons treated are arranged in alphabetical order and followed by 1–7 taxa. As an example, Josefpoeltia, Melanotopelia, Poeltiaria, Poeltidea, Poeltinula, Topelia and Topeliopsis are named in honour of Professor Josef Poelt. Biographical- bibliographical information of each person is often based on 2–4 independent literature sources, which means altogether over 400 cited references. Several of these contain illustrations, portraits of the persons. Additionally 42 original figures – photographs taken by the author – are sorted in 5 tables at the end of the volume. An entire index would be superfluous, however, on pages 123 and 124 there is a table on generic names with difficult relations to personal names, also serving the orientation by the help of the continuous numbering of the alphabetically arranged personal names. The volume is useful for lichenologist, mycologist researchers, museologists, students, collectors and those who are interested in the history of biological sciences. It would be worth to make similar information available online, e.g. combined to items in Index Fungorum or MycoBank.


Acta Botanica Hungarica 54 (3-4), 2012

Book Review: Acta Mus. Siles. Sci. Natur., 63: 52-54, 2014 top ↑

Eponyms are names derived from names of real or mythical persons and they are usually used as place names, but often also for minerals, chemical elements, and other entities, including genera of plants, fungi and animals. An eponym also means a real or mythical person from whose name another name is derived. In systematic botany the practice of showing marks of respect to persons in the names of genera has a long tradition and dates to the 1730s. In 1737 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in his opus Critica botanica in qua nomina plantarum generica: specifica & variantia examini subjiciuntur, selectoria confirmatur, indigna rejiciuntur; simulque docrtina circa denominationem plantarum traditur. Seu Fundamentorum botanicorum pars IV wrote: “Nomina generica ad Botanici bene meriti memoriam conservandam constructa, sancta servo”. In the free translation it means: “It is a bounden duty to retain distinguished botanists in memory by immortalising them in the names of genera”. In fact, Linnaeus put this idea into practice in 1735 when, in the first edition of his Systema naturae, he proposed several such generic names, for example Bartsia (in honour of Johann Bartsch, a prematurely deceased friend of his youth), Scheuchzeria (in praise of the Swiss naturalist Johann Jakob Scheuchzer), Tillandsia (in honour of Elias Tillands, a Swedish doctor of Åbo, now Turku in Finland) and Rudbeckia (for Olof Rudbeck, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala). These names were subsequently validated by Linnaeus himself in 1753 in his Species plantarum, an opus considered to be a starting point of nomenclature of most plants, algae and lichens. However, he changed the name Rudbeckia for Linnaea and in this way honoured his own name in the generic name of his favourite plant. In fact, the genus name Linnaea was first published by Linnaeus’ teacher Jan Frederik Gronovius, a Dutch botanist, and Linnaeus only formalised this name under his modern system of botanical nomenclature. At the same time Linnaeus reassigned the name Rudbeckia to a well known genus of the Asteraceae.

The custom of coining eponymous generic names gained wide acceptance in botany and soon became prevalent in all groups of plants, algae and fungi. In lichenology the first generic eponyms were proposed in 1809 by E. Acharius. He honoured in this way William Borrer (1781−1862) who is considered the farther of British lichenology and Jean-Marie-Léon Dufour (1780−1865), a French mycologist with whom Acharius was in close touch and who donated to him numerous collections which included many new species. Acharius was followed by other students of lichens and consequently the number of generic eponyms increased down the years. As is often the case this practice started slowly, and in the first half of the nineteenth century only 19 generic eponyms were proposed, but a further 103 appeared between 1850−1909.

A certain nomenclatural stagnation took place in the first half of the twentieth century and between 1910−1949 a mere 55 eponyms were published, apparently resulting from an abatement of the activity in botanical studies during the two world wars. However, in the second half of the twentieth century another eruption in the formation of the generic eponyms in lichenology occurred and between 1950−2009 no less than 192 such generic names were coined. In total, from 1809 to 2011 some 379 genera of lichens were published whose names commemorated lichenologists or persons in some way associated with lichenology including collectors, botanists, naturalists, friends and/or family members.

All these eponyms have been tracked down and scrupulously set in the present book by Hannes Hertel, emeritus professor in the Botanical Municipal Museum in Munich (Botanische Staatssammlung München).

The book contains an alphabetic list of 287 persons after whom generic names of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are derived, some of these having more than one generic eponym. For each person a brief or extended biographical sketch is provided, which is usually accompanied by a quotation of the dedication taken from the original publication, containing a justification for establishing a given eponym. Thus this book may be considered as an abridged history of lichenology seen through the prism of the biographies of individual researchers or persons who in some way contributed to the description of eponymous genera. Hertel has painstakingly gathered the great amount of biographical data, through contacts with many people throughout the world and the consultation of numerous sources containing biographical details of the persons concerned. Surely, the vast personal contacts of the author in the lichenological community proved to be helpful, especially with colleagues he had often met at various conferences and symposia. A by-product of these meetings is a rich photographic collections of portraits of present-day lichenologists in the author’s personal archive from which nearly 40 pictures of eminent students of lichens are reproduced in the present book.

The survey of eponyms occupies almost the entire book. It is preceded by a short introduction in which the author presents some interesting and absorbing statistics. For example, taking into consideration the sex of eponyms in lichenology, the statistics clearly indicate that this science is a male dominated realm because, of the 379 generic eponymous names, only 18 are dedicated exclusively to women. The situation is even more drastic if the problem is considered historically. Until 1949 only one genus, Libertiella Speg. & Roum., described in 1880, is named for a female, Anne-Marie Libert (1782−1865), a Belgian (Wallonian) naturalist of Malmedy. Until 1989 only five women attained the honour of receiving eponyms of generic names of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. The situation somewhat improved between 1990−2009 when an additional 13 eponymous lichen genera were dedicated to women.

In the introductory part various kinds of eponyms are discussed, because the inventiveness of the authors is quite immense in this field. Most eponyms are simply derived from surnames or Christian names, but sometimes they are formed from both elements, for instance Josefpoeltia S.Kondr. & Kärnfelt and Peterjamesia D.Hawksw. In some cases eponyms are dedicated together to two persons and then only some parts of their names are used, for example Sagema Poelt & Grube honours Sabine Miehe and Georg Miehe, and Clarouxia D.Hawksw. is an agglomeration of the elements of some parts of the surnames of Georges Clauzade and Claude Roux. Some eponyms are formed from initials and/or selected components of surnames and Christian names, for example the generic name Heiomasia Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata is dedicated to the Dutch/German lichenologist Henricus Johannes Maria Sipman, and under the name Wawea Henssen & Kantvilas is hidden the American botanist and lichenologist William A. Weber of Boulder, Colorado. Finally, eponyms may be anagrams of surnames, for instance Topelia P.M.Jørg. & Vězda is an anagram of the generic name Poeltia Grolle (Gymnomitriaceae, Marchantiophyta) dedicated to Josef Poelt (1924−1995), one of the greatest lichelonogists in the history of the science and Schrakia Hafellner is an anagram of Karschia Körb., originally formed to honour the German doctor and botanist A. F. F. Karsch (1822−1892).

There are some interesting statistics which are not discussed by the author but which seem to be worthy of consideration. This includes the ranking of persons with the highest number of dedicated generic names. In this category the top position, with seven eponyms, is occupied by the Austrian lichenologist Josef Poelt. Second, is the German lichenologist J. A. Philip Hepp (1797−1867) with six eponyms. In third place comes the French lichenologist Georges Clauzade (1914−2002) for whom five generic names have been dedicated. It is necessary to mention that at the opposite pole there are some eminent students of lichens who never received eponyms of lichen generic names. This group is headed by E. Acharius (1757−1819), a Swedish botanist and one of the last disciples of C. Linnaeus, who initiated taxonomic studies on lichens and for that reason is considered to be the father of lichenology. In this group there are also such excellent lichenologists as Theodor M. Fries (1832−1913) from the famous clan of Swedish botanists, and author of, among other things, Lichenographia scandinavica; J. M. Crombie (1831−1906), the eminent British lichenologist and author of a monograph of British lichens and numerous papers on exotic lichens; and V. Gyelnik (1906−1945), the famous Hungarian lichenologist who tragically died in the last days of World War II, but who earlier described many lichen genera, ten of which were eponyms.

Of other interesting statistics it is worth mentioning lichenologists who described the highest number of dedicated generic names. This field is dominated by the British mycologist and lichenologist David L. Hawksworth, who is the author or co-author of 26 eponymous generic names. He is followed by the Italian lichenologist V. Trevisan (1818−1897), who proposed some 23 eponyms for lichen genera. These two researchers markedly outdistance the Italian botanist and mycologist R. Tomaselli (1920−1982), who described 17 genera honouring various persons, including 14 in co-authorship with R. Ciferri (1897−1964). The Silesian lichenologist G. F. Körber (1817−1885) and modern Austrian mycologist and lichenologist J. Hafellner have described 15 eponymous lichen genera each, whilst 13 have been authored by the Italian lichenologist A. B.

Massolongo (1824−1860). Twelve eponyms were introduced by the Austrian lichenologist A. Zahlbruckner (1860−1938), whilst the Hungarian V. Gyelnik and the American C. W. Dodge (1895−1988) described ten eponymous lichen genera each. The book is a valuable contribution to lichenological and biohistorical literature. It reminds us of the many persons who have contributed so much to the development of taxonomic science on lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Unfortunately, in the present days such people are often forgotten because traditional systematics is neglected, being over dominated by phylogenetic studies based upon molecular techniques. These are undoubtedly valuable but without well trained taxonomists the harmonious development of knowledge on lichens (and other groups of organisms) is impossible, especially in studies of biodiversity. It is also useful to remember that because of the duality of the lichen thallus taxonomic studies on lichens have been not as forthcoming as, for example, those of bryophytes, but each year provides a lot of valuable discoveries of new taxa.

Ryszard Ochyra

Acta Mus. Siles. Sci. Natur., 63: 52-54, 2014

Inhaltsverzeichnis top ↑

Abstract 1
Zusammenfassung 1
Einleitung 1
Allgemeines zu den Gattungseponymen bei Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen 3
Die Personen und ihre Eponyme 9
Vorbemerkung 9
Die Liste 9
Anhang 123
Dank 125
Literatur 125
Tafel 1-5 148