cover

Erast Parmasto; Ilmi Parmasto:

Variation of basidiospores in the hymenomycetes and its significance to their taxonomy

1987. 168 pages, 1 figure, 36 tables, 14x22cm, 350 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Mycologica, Band 115)

ISBN 978-3-443-59016-1, paperback, price: 41.00 €

in stock and ready to ship

Order form

BibTeX file

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

The authors of this paper cannot abstain from the temptation to repeat here the frequently quoted sentence of Sir Francis Galton: "General impressions are never to be trusted". Numerous little myths have been published on non-variability or variability and their dependencies on fungal spores; species conceptions, evolutionary schemes, etc. have been built up on the basis of several myths. Reasonable use of biometrics enables us to eliminate these myths by knowledge and making approximations closer to the truth; based on a biometrical approach and considering the concept of population allows one to describe much better than ever before the variable species, and really determine whether it exists in nature; to reduce the amount of "dubious" species which have been accumulating for the last one and a half centuries; to classify and characterize better the "good" species.
At the same time we must not forget that application of the biometrical methods without a biological interpretation of the results enables us to camouflage with the aureole of objectivity any subjective statements and hypotheses, founded on insufficient data.
The authors of this paper clearly admit that the weakness of ohr monograph lies in the still too scanty data and in the fact that only few characters applied in the taxonomy of fungi, namely spore characters, are dealt with in isolation from other characters. But the authors hope that they have offered to the fungal taxonomists some food for thought and to stimulate them in thinking of populations and not simply individuals.

Contents top ↑

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS 9
INTRODUCTION 11
Acknowledgements 13
I. VARIATION OF BASIDIOSPORES 15
1. MATERIALS AND METHODS 15
1.1. Materials and methods used 15
1.2. Number of spore measure-meets required 18
1.3. Effect of the number of specimens studied on research results 22
2. THE COMPLEXITY OF VARIATION IN SPORES 23
2.1. Variation in spores related to ontogeny and
developmental rhythms 24
2.2. Variation due to environmental factors 27
2.3. Variation due to differences in the genotype 29
2.4. Conclusions 31
3. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF THE VARIATION OF SPORE SIZE 34
3.1. Frequency distribution of the spore variation data at individual level 34
3.2. Frequency distribution of the spore variation data at specific level 37
3.3. Discussion 38
II. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 41
4. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SPORES OF THE HYMENOMYCETES STUDIED 41
4.1. The mean spore length 41
4.2. The mean spore width 41
4.3. The mean value of the spore quotient Q 42
4.4. Discussion 42
5. CORRELATION BETWEEN SPORE LENGTH AND SPORE WIDTH 44
5.1. Correlation between spore length and spore width within an individual 44
5.2. Correlation between spore length and spore width at the specific level 45
5.3. Discussion 46
6. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN SPORE MEASUREMENTS AND
VARIANCES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SAME INDIVIDUAL 47
6.1. Comparison of spores in different parts of one pileus 48
6.2. Comparison of spores of different piled having a common stem 48
6.3. Comparison of spores of different basidiomata of a fairy ring 48
6.4. Comparison of spores of basidiomata growing in one
group or in vicinity 56
6.5. Discussion 57
7. CHARACTER OF INTRA-INDIVIDUAL SPORE VARIATION WITHIN A SPECIES 59
7.1. Variability of intra-individual spore variation 60
7.2. Dependence of intra-individual spore variation on
the mean spore length of specimens 60
7.3. Discussion 61
8. MEAN INTRA-INDIVIDUAL SPORE VARIATION 63
8.1. Variation in spore length 63
8.2. Variation in spore width 63
8.3. Correlation between the variations of spore length
and spore width 64
8.4. Similarity of the variations in spore length and
spore width 65
8.5. Variation in spore shape 65
8.6. Discussion 66
9. INTRASPECIFIC SPORE VARIATION 67
9.1. Dependence of intraspecific variability on the size
of the collecting area studied 68
9.2. Variation in spore length 69
9.3. Variation in spore width 69
9.4. Correlation between the variations of spore length
and spore width 70
9.5. Similarity of the variations in spore length and spore width 71
9.6. Variation in spore shape 71
9.7. Correlation between the variations of mean spore
length and spore shape 73
9.8. Similarity of the variations in spore shape, spore
length and spore width 73
9.9. Discussion 74
10. DEPENDENCE BETWEEN INTRASPECIFIC AND MEAN INTRA-INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS 76
10.1. Variation in spore length 76
10.2. Variation in spore width 76
10.3. Variation in spore shape 77
10.4. Discussion 77
III. BIOLOGICAL MEANING OF THE RESULTS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN TAXONOMY 79
11. SIGNIFICANCE OF SPORE SIZE AND SHAPE IN THE
EVOLUTION OF THE HYMENOMYCETES 79
12. BIOLOGICAL MEANING OF INTRA-INDIVIDUAL SPORE
VARIATION. LIMITS OF VARIATION 82
13. INTRASPECIFIC SPORE VARIATION AND ITS RESTRICTIONS . 85
14. EVALUATION OF SPORE VARIABILITY. APPLICATION OF THE ESTIMATES 88
14.1. Criteria of evaluation 88
14.2. Reasons for a very great or a very small variability 92
14.3. On the taxonomy of some Hymenomycetes having very
variable spores 94
15. EVALUATION OF SPORE CHARACTERS IN DISCRIMINATION OF SPECIES 97
15.1. Requirement to take into consideration the difference
between individual and specific levels 97
15.2. How new species of fungi are described nowadays 103
16. COMPARISON OF THE SPORES OF TWO SPECIMENS FOR DETERINING
THEIR SPECIES DIFFERENCE AND SPECIES IDENTITY 105
17. HOW TO PRESENT DATA ON SPORE SIZE AND SHAPE IN SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS 107
17.1. The determination of tolerance limits 108
17.2. Recommendations 111
IV. VARIATION OF SPORES IN THE NON-HYMENOMYCETOUS FUNGI 113
18. VARIATION OF CONIDIA (SPORANGIA) IN THE PERONOSPORALES 113
18.1. Frequency distribution of spore data at the specific level 113
18.2. Correlation between spore length and spore width 118
18.3. Intra-individual spore variation 118
18.4. Intraspecific spore variation 119
19. VARIATION OF CONIDIA IN THE ERYSIPHALES 119
19.1. Frequency distribution of spore data at the individual level 119
19.2. Frequency distribution of spore data at the specific level 120
19.3. Correlation between spore length and spore width at
the individual level 120
19.4. Correlation between mean spore length and mean spore
width at the specific level 120
19.5. Character of intra-individual spore variation at the specific level 121
19.6. Intraspecific spore variation 122
20. VARIATION OF THE UREDIOSPORES AND OF THE TELIOSPORES IN THE UREDINALES 122
20.1. Frequency distribution of spore data at the specific level 122
20.2. Correlation between mean spore length and mean spore
width at the specific level 125
20.3. Intraspecific spore variation 125
21. DISCUSSION. COMPARISON WITH THE VARIATION OF SPORES
IN THE HYMENOMYCETES 125
CONCLUSION 127
LITERATURE 129
APPENDIX 1. Descriptions of new taxa 137
APPENDIX 2. T. Mols. Testing of the population homogeneity 141
Table 35. Tolerance limits of the mean spore size and Q
values in the Hymenomycetes studied 148
Table 36. Mean spore measurements, Q values and their
variation in the Hymenomycetes studied 152
INDEX 163