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Annemarie Ulken:

Marine Thraustochytrids and Chytridiomycetes in the North Sea Area and in selected other regions

1990. 93 pages, 55 plates, 14x22cm, 230 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Mycologica, Band 137)

ISBN 978-3-443-59038-3, paperback, price: 46.00 €

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Contents

Synopsis top ↑

During the past two decades marine ecological work increasingly focused on the role of heterotrophic organisms in remineralization of nutrients in the sea. In comparison to bacteria and protozoans, however, little attention has been given to marine fungi. Marine fungi are of high ecological importance, especially the so-called lower fungi, which include the exclusively marine thraustochytrids and the Chytridiomycetes of brackish environments.
These fungi are found in a wide range of environmental conditions, from inner estuarine waters to the high seas. Thus they can withstand extreme variabilities of salinity, temperature and irradiance.
As a subject, the ecology of aquatic fungi lags behind because of difficulties in identifying proper taxa. It has not been possible up to now to designate an appropriate position of the whole systematic group within the phylogenetic tree‘of living microbes (GAERTNER, 1972; KARLING, 1960; MARGULIS, 1980; and others). This book does not aim to settle the question of evolutionary relationships. Rather, it provides a guide to identification so that it can be useful in physiological and ecological work.
The fungi are characterized by the following criteria:
- Size of zoosporangia -
- Size of zoospores -
- Flagellation of zoospores -
- Size of resting spores -
- Colour of storage products -
- Shape of sporangial wall -
- Shape of rhizoids -
Additionally, if known, physiological features such as the ability to survive under oxic or anoxic conditions are given. Life cycles are demonstrated with photomicrographs which are of special value because of the extreme morphological variability of these organisms.
Although identification of species often is dependent on electron microscopy, as is shown by the excellent publications of the working group on marine fungi in Portsmouth, UK. ((CHAMBERLAIN, 1980; MOSS, 1980; 1985), the information presented in this book should help field workers who normally are not equipped with EM facilities.
The geographical area covered in this book is mainly restricted to the North Sea including estuaries and intertidal regions of the Wadden Sea. Additionally, samples from several tropical mangrove swamps and the Antarctic Ocean are treated. This poor geographical coverage indicates the present state of knowledge in the taxonomy of lower fungi. Nevertheless, it should be possible to identify at least the genus in other geographical areas by aid of the information provided here on morphological variance and distribution of the lower fungi.
In the former "Institut für Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven", now "Alfred-Wegener-Institute of Polar and Marine Research" in Bremerhaven, FRG, collection and study of marine fungi was initiated by Dr. W. HOHNK in 1952 and continued by Dr. A. GAERTNER in 1967. He was the head of the Department of Botany until October 1, 1982. During this time and later the life cycles of a considerable number of species of lower fungi have been investigated and documented in the resulting library of photomicrographs. These micrographs have proved invaluable for instructions of students in marine mycology courses. Most of the documented species are stored in liquid nitrogen and are still available in the live culture collection of marine fungi of the Institute. This collection was supplemented by samples of newly described species which have been sent by several colleagues.
Material and Methods
The cultures which had been stored in containers of 'Cryoson' under liquid nitrogen were thawed by raising the temperature (between -196° and - 100°C) in small intervals with the aid of a programmable 'Cryoson' freezer. Thereafter, the cultures were kept at room temperature until they were completely thawed. The cultures then were immediately transferred to fresh nutrient medium. Good growth occurred usually within six to eight days. As nutrient medium we used river water with a salinity of 8-12 8700 enriched with a broth after OPPENHEIMER & ZOBELL (1952), which was slightly modified regarding the concentration of nutrients (ULKEN, 1965). The half-strength nutrient after OPPENHEHVIER & ZOBELL was
Peptone (MERCK) 1.00 g
Yeast extract (MERCK) 2.00 g
Fe(III)-phosphate (MERCK) 0.01 g
agar (DIFCO) 5.00 g
The pH was adjusted to 7.6 - 7.8
The fungi were isolated out of crude cultures with the aid of a microcapillary. After growth and control of single isolates they were treated with a solution of antibiotics. From growing pure cultures, only one zoospore was transferred to the bottom of a 'flow-through chamber' (HEUNERT, 1974). The 'flow-through chamber' was used to observe the development of the zoospore under low magnification of a LEITZ 'Ortholux‘ microscope. Time series of micrographs were prepared showing the life cycles of these organisms beginning from the settled zoospore until maturation and sporulation. The time needed for completion of the life cycles differed with species and culture medium for each experiment Genera and species are presented alphabetically.

Contents top ↑

Synopsis of orders, families and genera 5
Introduction 6
Acknowledgement 7
Material and Methods 7
Photograph: Flow-through chamber 9
Graph 1: Flow-through chamber l0
A. THRAUSTOCHYTRIDS 11
Family THRAUSTOCHYTRIACEAE 11
Genus Thraustochytrium SPARROW 1936 11
Genus Aplanochytrium BAHNWEG & SPARROW 1972 11
1. Aplanochytrium kerguelensis bahnweg & sparrow 1972 11
Genus Labyrinthuloides PERKINS 1973 12
1. Labyrinthuloides yorkensis PERKINS 12
Genus Schizochytrium GOLDSTEIN & BELSKY 1964 13
1. Schizochytrium aggregatum GOLDSTEIN & BELSKY 13
2. Schizochytrium minutum GAERTNER 1981 14
Genus Thraustochytrium SPARROW 1936 15
1. Thraustochytrium aggregatum ULKEN 1965 15
2. Thraustochytrium aureum GOLDSTEIN 1963 15
3. Thraustochytrium kinnei GAERTNER 1967 16
4. Thraustochytrium motivum GOLDSTEIN 1963 17
5. Thraustochytrium multirudimentale GOLDSTEIN 1963 17
6. Thraustochytrium pachydermum SCHOLZ 1958 17
7. Thraustochytrium roseum GOLDSTEIN 1963 18
8. Thraustochytrium striatum SCHNEIDER 1967 18
Genus Ulkenia GAERTNER 1977 19
1. Ulkenia minuta RAGHU KUMAR 1977 20
2. Ulkenia profunda GAERTNER 1977 20
3. Ulkenia radiate GAERTNER 1977 21
4. ULkenia sarkariana GAERTNER 1977 21
5. Ulkenia visurgensis (ULKEN) GAERlNER 1977 21
Genus Labyrinthula 22
1. Labyrinthula sp 22
B. CHYTRIDIOMYCETES 24
Order CHYTRIDIALES 24
Family OLPIDIACEAE 24
Genus Olpidium (BRAUN) RABENHORST 1868 24
1. Olpidium maritimum HÖHNK & ALEEM 1953 24
2. Olpidium (?) maritimum 24
Family RHIZIDIACEAE 25
Genus Chvtridium BRAUN 1851 25
1. Chytridium (?) confervae (WILLE) v. MINDEN (1915) 25
Genus Chvtriomyces KARLING 1945 25
1. Chytriomyces hyalinus KARLING 25
Genus Phlyctochytrium SCHROETER 1892 26
1. Phlyctochytrium aestuarii ULKEN 1972 26
2. Phlyctochytrium mangrovis ULKEN 1972 27
3. Phlyctochytrium rheinboldlae PERSEL 1959 28
4. Phlyctochytrium sp 29
Genus Podochytrium PFITZER 1869 29
1. Podochytrium chitinophilum WILLOUGHBY 1961 29
Genus Rhizophlyctis FISCHER 1892 30
1. Rhizophlyctis harder UEBELMESSER 1956 30
Genus Rhizophydium SCHENK 1858 30
1. Rhizophydium littoreum AMON 1984 30
Genus Spizellomyces acuminatus (ULKEN, 1972) (BARR)
comb. nov. 1984 31
Family CLADOCHYTRIACEAE 32
Genus Cladochytrium NOWAKOWSKI 1876 32
1. Cladochytrium replicatum KARLING 1931 32
Order BLASTOCLADIALES 33
Family CATENARIACEAE 33
Genus Catenaria SOROKIN 1876 33
1. Catenaria anguillulae SOROKIN 1876 33
Order HYPHOCHYTRIOMYCETES 34
Family RHIZIDIOMYCETACEAE 34
Genus Rhizidiomyces ZOPF 1884 34
1. Rhizidiomyces bulbosus KARLING 1968 34
Plate I, 1-9 Aplanochytrium kerguelensis 36
Plate II, 10-17 Aplanochytrium kerguelensis 37
Plate III, 1-9 Aplanochytrium kerguelensis 38
Plate IV, 1-12 Labyrinthuloides yorkensis 39
Plate V, 1-9 Schizochytrium aggregatum 40
Plate VI, 1-12 Schizochytrium aggregatum 41
PLate VII, 1-9 Schizochytrium aggregatum 42
Plate VIII, 1-9 Schizochytrium aggregatum 43
PlateIX, 1-9 Schizochytrium minutum 44
Plate X, 1-8 Thraustochytrium aggregatum 45
Plate XI, 1-12 Thraustochytrium aureum 46
Plate XII, 1-12 Thraustochytrium kinnei 47
Plate XIII, 1-9 Thraustochytrium motivum 48
Plate XIV, 1-9 Thraustochytrium multirudimentale 49
Plate XV, 1-9 Thraustochytrium multirudimentale 50
Plate XVI, 1 - 12 Thraustochytrium pachydermum 51
Plate XVII, 1-9 Thraustochytrium roseum 52
Plate XVIII, 1-9 Thraustochytrium roseum 53
Plate XIX, 1-12 Thraustochytrium striatum 54
Plate XX, 1-9 Thraustochytrium striatum 55
Graph 2 Genus Ulkenia, publ. by GAERTNER 1977 56
Graph 3 Ulkenia minuta 57
Plate XXI, 1-12 Ulkenia profunda 58
Plate XXII, 1-9 Ulkenia radiata 59
Plate XXIII, 1-9 Ulkenia sarkariana 60
Plate XXIV, 1-9 Ulkenia visurgensis 61
Plate XXVI, 1-4 Labyrinthula sp. 63
Plate XXIV, 1-9 Ulkenia visurgensis 61
Plate XXV, 1-9 Ulkenia visurgensis 62
Plate XXVI, 1-4 Labyrinthula sp 63
Plate XXVII, 1-6 Phys. tests with a Traustochytrium sp., 64
Plate XXVIII, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Traustochytrium sp., 65
Plate XXIX, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Traustochytrium sp., 66
Plate XXX, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Traustochytrium sp., 67
Plate XXXI 1-9 Olpidium maritimum 68
Plate XXXII, 1-12 Olpidium (?) maritimum 69
Plate XXXIII, 1-6 Chytridium confervae 70
Plate XXXIV, 1-8 Chytriomyces hyalinus 71
Plate XXXV, 1-9 Phlyctochytrium aestuarii 72
Plate XXXVI, 1-9 Phlyctochytrium mangrovis 73
Plate XXXVII, 1-6 Phlyctochytrium rheinboldtae 74
Plate XXXVIII, 1-6 Phlyctochytrium rheinboldtae 75
Plate XXXIX, a 1-8 Phlyctochytrium sp 76
Plate XXXIX, b 1-6 Phlyctochytrium sp 77
Plate XL, 1-8 Podochytrium chitinophilum 78
Plate XLI, 1-4 Podochytrium chitinophilum 79
Plate XLII, 1-12 Rhizophlyctis harderi 80
Plate XLIII, 1-9 Rhizophydium littoreum 81
Plate XLIV, 1-9 Rhizophydium sp 82
Plate XLV, 1-9 Spizellomyces acuminatus 83
Plate XLVI, 1-6 Spizellomyces acuminatus 84
Plate XLVII, 1-8 Cladochytrium replicatum 85
Plate XLVIII, 1-4 Cladochytrium replicatum 86
Plate IL, 1-6 Catenaria anguillulae 87
Plate L, 1-8 Rhizidiomyces bulbosus 88
Plate LI, 1-4 Rhizidiomyces bulbosus 89
Plate LII, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Rhizophydium sp., 90
Plate LIII, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Rhizophydium sp., 91
Plate LIV, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Rhizophydium sp., 92
Plate LV, 1-9 Phys. tests with a Rhizophydium sp., 93