Heinz Clémençon; Valerie Emmett:

Cytology and Plectology of the Hymenomycetes

with the assistance of: Ernest Emmett

2004. VIII, 488 pages, 632 figures, 12 tables, 14x23cm, 890 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Mycologica, Band 199)

ISBN 978-3-443-59101-4, paperback, price: 96.00 €

out of print

BibTeX file


Synopsis top ↑

This book brings together the essentials of our knowledge of the cytology, plectology («histology») and anatomy of the Hymenomycetes, an important group of higher fungi including mushrooms, boletes, bracket fungi, club fungi, chanterelles, spine fungi and crust fungi, but excluding the Gasteromycetes and jelly fungi. It spans about two centuries of mycological research, from the late 18th century to spring 2003, and most chapters include historical notes on the topics discussed. Taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology and genetics are not treated, although a minimum of ecological or physiological information is given when appropriate. The terminology often breaks away from traditional and sometimes obsolete concepts, especially in the description of hyphal differentiations, of cystidia and of fruit body development. All accepted concepts and terms are illustrated and many examples given, often with new and original photographs. The last chapter, Associations of Hymenomycetes with Other Organisms, is deliberately short and concise, except the discussion of the lichenised Basidiomycetes, since most topics discussed there, e.g. the mycorrhizae and the termites, are treated in other specialised books or are still poorly understood.
A detailed Table of Contents, a bibliography, a subject index and a taxonomical index allow easy access to the information and material treated.
Audience: Mycologists, students, advanced amateurs and biologists who need morphological information on higher Basidiomycetes on the cytological, mycelial and basidiomal levels, and on specialised structures, such as spores and conidia, cystidia, rhizomorphs, sclerotia, pseudosclerotia and mycorrhizae.

Rev.: Österreischische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 13 (2004) top ↑

This book is a key publication indispensable for all interested in anatomy and cytology of basidiomycetes with hymenial surfaces (hymenomycetes). It is neither a translation nor a second edition of CLÉMENÇON (1997: Anatomie der Hymenomyceten, Teufen: Flück-Wirth), but the text has been thoroughly revised, significantly shortened, and numerous new figures have been added.

The paper and printing quality of the book are high. The structure of the book is logical and consistent, the text is easy to read and the illustrations (both microphotographs and line drawings) are of excellent quality. The book is intended for mycology students, professional as well as experienced amateur mycologists who will find this book to be a concise and clearly written compilation. What makes this publication an essential key reference is the fact that the available information is not only compiled, but also thoroughly evaluated by the first author. This is only possible due to the excellent longtime research experience of CLÉMENÇON in this field. It is therefore an indispensable reference for anyone describing microscopical features of hymenomycetes.

The book consists of the following 11 chapters which give a comprehensive detailed presentation of hymenomycete anatomy and cytology: 1. Basic concepts, 2. The hyphae of the hymenomycetes, 3. The Mycelium, 4. Mitospores of the hymenomycetes, 5. Basidia and basidiospores, 6. Cystidia, pseudocystidia and hyphidia, 7. Pigment topography, 8. Bulbils, sclerotia and pseudosclerotia, 9. Basidiomes, 10. Carpogenesis, 11.Associations of hymenomycetes with other organisms. Each chapter is introduced by a historical overview before defining, illustrating and evaluating the technical terms. All terms introduced are well-illustrated by numerous excellent figures. There is also often a list of terms which should not be used due to logical inconsistencies or misinterpretations.

There is no doubt that this book will become an essential standard reference for anyone interested in hymenomycete biology, cytology, anatomy, ontogeny or taxonomy, and it is warmly recommended. The authors are to be congratulated on their book!


Österreischische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 13 (2004)

Rev.: Persoonia 18/3, 2004 top ↑

This book is a concise and rewritten version of the author "Anatomie der Hymeno- myceten", published in 1997 by Koeltz Verlag (CH), which, unfortunately, never has been reviewed in this journal. In almost 500 pages the author leads us through the exciting world of the anatomy, cytology, and histology of the Hymenomycetes, which include all major groups of higher basidiomycetes, excluding gasteroid and jelly fungi. After a short introduction to the Hymenomycetes and their general developmental morphology, the book opens with an elaborate account of the features of the building stone of a basidiomycete fruit-body: the hypha, followed by a chapter on the mycelium with all its structures. Further chapters deal with mitospores, basidiospores, cystidia sensu lato, pigments and their topography, bulbils, sclerotia and pseudosclerotia,basidiome types, and developmental characters of the fruit-bodies. The last chapter is devoted to the associations of Hymenomycetes with other organisms.Care is taken of a consistent terminology. The author does not hesitate to make statements as to the correct use of terms and definitions.The text, which is written in a concise and clear style, is illustrated with a great number of high quality figures and diagrams, with clear indication of the source and often improved with help of digital techniques. With this publication the author created a standard work that will be a valuable tool and source of information for several generations of mycologist to come. Ernest and Valerie Emmett, who assisted the author in the preparation of this book, did a wonderful job by using an easy to understand language and style. Every mycologist should have this book on the shelf.

Persoonia 18/3, 2004

Rev.: Mycol. Res. 109 (1): 125­128 (January 2005) top ↑

Amphicleistoblemma; cytesia; ixooedotrichoderm; endohymenigenous; lamprotrichopalisade; thromboplera: terms which do not roll smoothly from the lips of this American reviewer, but terms which encapsulate structures or processes observable in tissues or development of hymenomycete basidiomata (the latter a term in itself no more than two decades old in common usage).

Clemencon's book (published with the linguistic assistance of Ernest and Valerie Emmett), summarizes what is known about basidiome, hymenium and tramal tissue development, and the microscopic (and sometimes fine structural) structures and distinguishing processes which delineate these manifestations of the fifth kingdom. As if phylogenetic reconstructions based on DNA sequences were not sufficiently rattling the traditional walls of hymenomycete systematics, the finely sliced terminology suggested by Clemencon should return old workers to their microscopes and encourage young workers to at least put the book on their library shelf for a lifetime of reference. The concepts within its covers, well-illustrated by numerous photographic plates (mostly original by the author) and many line drawings (usually borrowed from published work by others), not only represent a lifetime of collecting and parsing by the author, but the very fundamentals underlying the fruit bodies we all take for granted. In my country these days, much is made of `connecting the dots' of classified intelligence in order to predict (and therefore throttle) future terrorist activities. In the field explored by Clemencon, numerous phenomena are summarized which, if their `dots' had been connected, could have presaged some of the recent phylogenetic work. For instance, chiasto- and stichobasidial nuclear behaviour (p. 141) was outlined late in the 19th century, and applied to Hymenomycetes sporadically through the 20th. Stichobasidial behaviour linked Cantharellus, Craterellus, Clavulina and Hydnum, much later Multiclavula, and by implication, Tulasnella. Now, much later, DNA tells the same story, but for reasons psychobiological, workers seem more apt to believe the DNA evidence than that which was before them for over a century. Likewise, nematostatic and(or) nematocidal structures (pp. 73­74) were shown in cultures of Pleurotus and Hohenbuehelia many years ago, but the metuloids (p. 209) of Hohenbuehelia seemed to separate that genus from the other. Now, DNA confirms that the two genera form a monophyletic clade no more typical of the Tricholomataceae than many other sister clades.

Formally, the book is divided into 11 chapters, the first seven of which deal with microstructural items (i.e. Hyphae of Hymenomycetes; The mycelium; Mitospores, basidia and basidiospores; Cystidia, pseudocystidia and hyphidia; and Pigment topography). Using the table of contents and index, all terms and topics are easily found. The last chapters deal with organizational phenomena (i.e. Bulbils, sclerotia and pseudosclerotia; Basidiomes; and Carpogenesis) and, finally, even larger ideas (i.e. Associations of Hymenomycetes with other organisms). The detail of the coverage may be represented by noting that there are 17 pages on rhizomorphs and mycelial cords and 75 pages on carpogenesis.

Another societal nuance which has come to the attention of the American public these days is the distinction between reportage and opinion. Increasingly, news is being delivered, packaged with a not-too-hidden agenda by news companies. So it might be with Clemencon's book. Most of the book is reportage, historical, detailed, and pertinent. But Clemencon has not been without his own interpretation of observations over the years (see his many published papers), and this book uses and rationalizes his own system of terminology and causality. If accurate, this causes no harm, but if merely conjectural, it has the effect of reducing reliability on other, indisputable facts.

Altogether, Clemencon's volume deserves a place on the desk of all hymenomycete workers, whether in systematics, genetics, or physiology, for it will serve as a reference work as surely as does a dictionary or thesaurus. Especially in these days in which we demand so much `modern' knowledge of graduate students that they cease to be exposed to the traditional fundamentals, such students will do well by owning this volume. It will be the baseline for years to come.

Ronald H. Petersen

Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1100, USA

Mycol. Res. 109 (1): 125­128 (January 2005)

Rev.: Reprinted with permission from Incolulum © The Mycological So top ↑

059019900 Advances in understanding the biology of organisms are often founded on the careful observation of phenomena occurring at the cellular and tissue levels. For this reason, a compilation of anatomical knowledge not only communicates the state of the field but also provides raw material for further biological inquiry. In this volume, a substantial English rewriting of his German-language Anatomie der Hymenomyceten (1997), Heinz Clémençon applies commendable powers of observation and draws on a wealth of literature from the classic works of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to recent electron microscopy studies in presenting a compendium of the cellular and sub-cellular structure of Hymenomycetes. Intended for professional mycologists and advanced amateurs, the book surveys examples from a wide array of taxa and presents a broad survey of anatomical characters with the purposes of creating a central reference for the essentials of hymenomycete micromorphology and promoting the importance of morphological studies and organismal biology in general.

Following a brief chapter on basic concepts related to basidiomycete life cycles, the volume includes chapters on cytoplasmic structures of hyphae, mycelial dynamics, architecture and specialized structures, mitospores, basidia and basidiospores, cystidia, pseudocystidia and hyphidia, pigment topography, bulbils, sclerotia and pseudosclerotia, basidiomes, carpogenesis, and structures formed by hymenomycetes as part of interspecific associations. Clémençon not only surveys key features, but also presents an organized framework for classifying observed morphologies, often including dichotomous keys or comparative charts to illustrate these classifications. The author endeavors to clarify the descriptive terminology of hymenomycete morphology by illustrating historical uses and identifying misapplications of terms, introducing new terms where warranted and rejecting confusing ones. In discussing particular structures, Clémençon often provides an array of species-specific examples to illustrate the range of known morphological variation; his sections on rhizomorphs, spore wall architecture and sclerotia are particularly fine examples of this point. Clémençon also discusses the role of temporal and spatial variation in character states e.g., changes in the characteristics of a secretory hypha over time or over the length of a single hypha, and identifies examples where this variation may lead to confusion in describing traits. Terms and concepts are clearly illustrated with a wealth of impressive line drawings and micrographs, 632 figures in total, often taken by the author himself and, when so, clearly labeled with the stain or mounting medium used in preparation.

A rather long chapter devoted to carpogenesis recognizes the importance of observing features at the cellular level as a key to understanding developmental patterns in basidiome production. While providing succinct descriptions of the elements of carpogenesis for a diverse selection of species from corticioid, mucronelloid and cyphelloid to clavarioid, cantharelloid, polyporoid, agaricoid and boletoid species including secotioid forms, the chapter also serves to reveal how much is yet unknown about developmental phenomena in hymenomycetes.

The volume closes with an interesting chapter on morphological aspects of interspecific interactions involving hymenomycetes. While important for the sake of completeness, the section on mycorrhizae provides little information that is not available in a multitude of other sources. However, the sections on interactions with algae, termites, and ants are quite informative, and the sections on interactions with bacteria and bryophytes are intriguing though necessarily short due to the lack of a substantial body of research in these areas.

The author succeeds in his goal of compiling a treatment of the fundamental aspects of hymenomycete morphology in a single volume and, in doing so, makes a compelling statement on the importance of anatomical studies. This volume should serve as an invaluable reference for workers in the fields of anatomy, physiology, ecology and systematics of hymenomycetes. Although the book provides ample examples suggesting the importance of anatomical details for revealing taxonomic affinity and natural classifications, it should include more discussion of phylogenetic patterns; most discussions relating morphology to molecular phylogenies rely on a single publication (Moncalvo et al., 2002, Mol. Phylog. Evol. 23: 357-400). The morphological classification systems proposed by Clémençon appear to be improvements, sometimes vastly so, over older systems based on less-complete sampling, older technology, and/or misapplied terminology; however, evaluating these systems against the measure of homology assessment will help to reveal whether their utility extends beyond mere operationality. The use of terminology will probably always be fertile ground for disagreement, the title's use of the term "plectology" vs. the more widely-used "histology" perhaps being a case in point. However, in this volume, Clémençon makes an important effort toward clarifying unclear or misleading terms. Although other workers may disagree with some elements of the terminology proposed, Clémençon always offers cogent explanations for his choices of terms. The advanced amateur mycologist interested in the cellular and sub-cellular details of hymenomycete morphology should find plenty of subjects to be of interest here, though individuals primarily interested in the basic microscopic details relevant to mushroom identification would be better served by a book such as David Largent's How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus III: Microscopic Features, as Clémençon's volume does not include descriptive terms for features such as basidiospore and cystidal shapes.

The scope of this volume is largely descriptive by design; however, without explicit discussion, each section evokes numerous questions about the physiology, ecology and evolution of the hymenomycetes. Professor Clémençon not only surveys what is known about the cellular and subcellular morphology of hymenomycetes, but reminds us what is unknown about these topics and, implicitly, about the life cycles and biology of this important group of fungi. This volume should serve both to foster a more complete appreciation for morphological knowledge and to inspire research in diverse areas of mycology.

Todd W. Osmundson Institute of Systematic Botany and Cullman Program for Molecular Systematics Studies, New York Botanical Garden Bronx, NY 10458

Reprinted with permission from Incolulum © The Mycological Society of America

Contents top ↑

1 Basic concepts
The Hymenomycetes and the other fungi. General developmental
morphology. Diploidy and polyploidy.
2 The Hyphae of the Hymenomycetes
Historical Notes. Cytology of the Vegetative Hypha. Hyphal Walls, Septa,
Dolipores and hyphal cells, Hyphal sheaths, The cytoplasm, The spitzenkörper
and apical growth of hyphae, Other cytoplasmic organelles, The nucleus and
mitosis, Clamp connections and pseudoclamps. Modified Hyphae. Sclerohyphae,
Fibre hyphae (skeletal hyphae), Binding hyphae, Supporting hyphae (skeletoid
hyphae), Storage hyphae, Physalohyphae, Geliferous hyphae, Secretory hyphae
(Historical notes, Erroneous or alienated terms, The conventional terminology,
A modern terminology of secretory hyphae, The appearance of the deuteroplasm,
Changing deuteroplasm, Comments, The hydroplera, The heteroplera, The latex,
The laticifera, The gloeoplera, The thromboplera). Chemical reactivity of the
3 The Mycelium
Mycelial Types. Mycelial organisations after Boidin. Dynamics of the young
mycelium. Hyphal fusions. Morphology and Differentiations of the Mature
Mycelium. Mycelial architectures, Allocysts and thrombocysts, Stephanocysts,
Echinocysts, Malocysts and drepanocysts, Gloeosphexes, Toxocysts and
digitocysts, Mycelial cystidia, Lagenocysts and acanthocytes, Mycelial basidia.
Rhizomorphs. Cuticular cells, mycelioderms and pseudosclerotial plates.
4 Mitospores of the Hymenomycetes
Arthroconidia, Chlamydospores, Blastoconidia, Annelloconidia, Multicellular
hyphal fragments.
5 Basidia and Basidiospores
Spore Terminology and Phylogenetic Interpretations. The Formation of
Basidiospores, Karyogamy and meiosis, The third nuclear division, Formation of
the sterigmata and the apophysis, The number of sterigmata, Two-spored basidia
and amphithally, A word about parthenogenesis in Hymenomycetes. The
Siderophilous Granulation. Basidial Types, Variations of the basidium, The
Tulasnella basidium. The Basidiospores, Form and size of the basidiospores,
The basidiospore wall, Wall structures seen with the light microscope, Wall
structures seen with the electron microscope, The Myxosporium, Some
unclassified myxosporia, Modifications of the myxosporium, Germ pores,
Papillae, The apiculus and spore liberation, The mechanism of spore discharge,
Germination of the basidiospores.
6 Cystidia, Pseudocystidia and Hyphidia
Historical Notes. Terminology and classification of the cystidia, Cystidia,
Deuterocystidia, Chrysocystidia, Gloeocystidia (Russulaceae,
Gloeocantharellus, Fayodia deusta, Peniophora). Alethocystidia, Astrocystidia,
Halocystidia, Lagenocystidia, Lamprocystidia (Inocybe-type, Metuloids,
Pluteus-type, Setae), Some more lamprocystidia, Leptocystidia, Lyocystidia,
Ornatocystidia, Scopulocystidia, Trabecular Cystidia. Pseudocystidia,
Heterocystidia, Skeletocystidia, Septocystidia, Hyphidia, Liana hyphae, Hyphal
pegs and hymenial aculei. Terms that should be avoided. Rejected terms
7 Pigment Topography
8 Bulbils, Sclerotia and Pseudosclerotia.
Historical Notes. Bulbils (Burgoa-type bulbils, Aegerita-type bulbils).
Multicellular bodies possibly related to bulbils. Sclerotia and
9 Basidiomes
Historical Notes. Basidiome types. Hymenophore configurations. Plectology of
the basidiomes (The basic contexts, Hymenia and hymenophores, Cortical
layers). Pseudorhizae. Rhacophyllus forms and stilboids.
10 Carpogenesis
Historical Notes. Basic concepts and terminology. The nodulus. Selected
examples (Corticioid fungi, Stereoid fungi, Mucronelloid and Cyphelloid fungi,
Clavarioid fungi, Cantharelloid fungi, Polyporoid fungi, Agaricoid and
Boletoid fungi, Secotioid fungi). A new carpogenetic type ?
11 Associations of Hymenomycetes with Other Organisms
Bacteria in basidiomes. Cyanobacteria and green algae (Chlorophyta).
Associations without morphological specialisations. Hymenomycetes parasitic on
algae. Basidiolichenes. Mosses and liverworts (Bryophyta). Mycorrhizae of
seed plants (Biological aspects of mycorrhiza, Morphological classification of
the mycorrhizae, Perimycorrhiza, Ectomycorrhiza, Ectendomycorrhiza,
Endomycorrhiza. Hymenomycetes, termites and ants. Bibliography. Subject
Index. Taxonomic Index.