Simone M. Silva; Richard N. Pienaar:

Benthic Marine Cyanophyceae from Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa

2000. VII, 456 pages, 219 figures, 63 tables, 14x22cm, 850 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Phycologica, Band 107)

ISBN 978-3-443-60034-1, paperback, price: 98.00 €

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benthicsubstratacultureAfricaKwa ZuluNatalbenthischSubstratKulturAfrikaKwa ZuluNatal


Abstract top ↑

The marine Cyanophyceae of southern Africa are poorly known. Several marine substrata, along the Kwa-Zulu Natal Coast (South Africa) have been examined for cyanophytes. Enrichment cultures were prepared using Provasoli's enriched culture medium, and incubated under 20°C and 2Omumol.m-2 sect. Sixty-six taxa were identified. Eight failed to grow in either enrichment or unialgal cultures. Two of these were studied based only on the enrichment cultures and six only on the wild material. The sixty-six taxa belong to three orders, fourteen families and thirty-four genera.

Fifteen genera (Cyanosarcina, Chlorogloca, Chamaecalyx, Stanieria, Chroococcidiopsis, Solentia, Cyanosaccus, Hyella, cf. Pleurocapsa, cf. Borzia, Pseudanabaena, Limnothrix, Leptolyngbya, Kyrtuthrix, Trichormus) and thirty species [Glocothece cf. rupestris, Aphanocapsa concharum, A. Iitoralis, Chamaecalyx (Dermocarpella algarvensis), Stanieria cf. cyanosphaera, S. sublitoralis, Xenococcus cf. pyriformis, Cyanosaccus piriformis, Hyella cf. immanis, Leptolyngbya cf. antarctica, L. cf. lurida, L. norvegica, Phormidium cf. boryanum, Geitlerinema cf. exile, G. Iemmermannii, Porphyrosiphon martensianus f rupestris, Symploca atlantica, S. funicularis, Hydrocoleum confluens, H. Iyngbyaccum, Microcoleus cf: tenerrimus, Oscillatoria cf. willed, Spirulina labyrinthiformis, S. meneghiniana, Kyrtuthrix maculans, Scytonema cf. arcangeli, Calotrix cf. pilosa, C. scopulorum, Nostoc cf. minutum and Trichormus cf. subtropicus ] are recorded for the first time in South Africa.

The taxa isolated into unialgal cultures were studied under selected photon flux densities and temperature conditions and the morphology and size of the specimens were studied. Twenty-nine percent of the specimens displayed morphological variation, in addition to size variation and the remaining taxa exhibited size variation of different structures such as vegetative cells, heterocytes and akinetes. Most of the differences were statistically tested and they were significant at the 5% level.

This study strongly shows that some characteristics used in the taxonomy of the Cyanophyceae are not stable and may vary depending on the environmental/cultural conditions under which the specimen grows.

Contents top ↑

1. Introduction 1

1.1 The Class Cyanophyceae Sachs 1
1.2 Morphological Variability of Cyanophyceae and the Taxonomic
Implications 4
1.3 Research on Marine Cyanophyceae 13
1.4 Literature on South African Cyanophyceae 14
1.4.1 General Comments on Freshwater Species 14
1.4.2 Literature Review on Marine Species 15
2. Materials and Methods 17
2.1 Study Area 17
2.2 Sampling 17
2.3 Culture Studies 19
2.3.1 Enrichment Culture 19
Culture Medium 19
Growth Conditions 20
2.3.2 Isolation into Unialgal Cultures 20
2.4 Identification of the Species of Cyanophyceae 22
2.4.1 Investigation of Movement and Phototactic Response of Nanocytes 22
2.4.2 Identification 23
2.5 Culture Studies under Selected Irradiance and Temperature
Conditions 24
2.5.1 Irradiance and Temperature Gradient Plate 24
2.5.2 Statistical Analysis of Data 25
3. Results 26
Order Chroococcaceae Wettstein 43
Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli 43
Aphanothece microspora (Meneghini) Rabenhorst 52
Aphanothece sp. 57
Gloeothece cf. rupestris (Lyngbye) Bornet 63
Aphanocapsa concharum Hansgirg 68
Aphanocapsa litoralis Hansgirg 72
Aphanocapsa sp1 77
Aphanocapsa sp2 81
Chroococcus cf. turgidus (Kützing) Nägeli 86
Cyanosarcina sp. 92
Chlorogloea sp. 98
Chamaecalyx (Dermocarpella algarvensis) Ardre 103
Stanieria cf. cyanosphaera (Kómarek et Hindák Kómarek et Anagnostidis 110
Stanieria sublitoralis (Lindstedt) Anagnostidis et Pantazidou 116
Chroococcidiopsis sp1 122
Chroococcidiopsis sp2 129
Myxosarcina cf. concinna Printz 135
Myxosarcina sp1 142
Myxosarcina sp2 150
xenococcus cf. kerneri Hansgirg 156
Xenococcus cf. pyriformis Setchell et Gardner 162
Solentia sp. 169
Cyanosaccus piriformis Lukas et Golubic 173
Hyella cf. immanis Al-Thukair et Golubic 181
Hyella sp. 187
cf. Pleurocapsa sp1 196
cf. Pleurocapsa sp2 202
cf. Pleurocapsa sp3 208
Order Oscillatoriales Elenkin 215
cf. Borzia sp1 216
cf. Borzia sp2 220
Pseudanabaena sp. 226
Limnothrix sp. 231
Leptolyngbya cf. antarctica (W. et G.S.West) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 237
Leptolyngbya cf. eIurida (Gomont) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 243
Leptolynagbya norvegica (Gomont) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 248
Leptolyngbya tenuis (Gomont) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 253
Phormidium cf. autumnale (C. Agardh) Gomont 260
Phormidium cf. boryanum (Bory ex Gomont) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 265
Phormidium breve (Kützing ex Gomont) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 268
Phormidium okeni (C.Agardh ex Gomont) Anagnostidis et Kómarek 272
Geitlerinema amphibium (C.Agardh ex Gomont) Anagnostidis 279
Geitlerinema cf. exile (Skuja) Anagnostidis 284
Geitlerinema lemmermannii (Wolosz.) Anagnostidis 289
Porphyrosiphon martensianus (Meneghini ex Gomont) Anagnostidis et
Kómarek, frupestris Fremy 295
Symploca atlantica Gomont 300
Symploca funicularis Setchell et Gardner 306
Hydrocoleum confluens (Setchell et Gardner) Drouet 312
Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum Kützing ex Gomont 315
Hydrocoleum sp 317
Microcoleus chthonoplastes Thuret ex Gomont 323
Microcoleus cf. tenerrimus Gomont 325
Oscillatoria cf. willei Gardner em. Drouet 330
Oscillatoria sp 335
Lyngbya confervoides C. Agardh ex Gomont 341
Lyngbya limnetica Lemmermann 346
Spirulina labyrinthiformis Meneghini ex Gomont 352
Spirulina meneghiniana Zanardini ex Gomont 356
Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont 361
Order Nostocales (Borzi) Geitler 367
Kyrtuthrix maculans (Gomont) Umezaki 368
Scytonema cf. arcangeli Bornet et Flahault 372
Scytonema seagriefana Welsh 376
Calothrix cf. pilosa Harvey ex Bornet et Flahault 381
Calothrix scopulorum C. Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault 389
Nodularia harveyana Thuret ex Bornet et Flahault 399
Nostoc cf. minutum Desmazieres 407
Trichormus cf. subtropicus (Gardner) Kómarek et Anagnostidis 413
4. Discussion 425
Appendix 1 429
References 430