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Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera

With contributions by: Jorgen Kristiansen; Preisig, Hans R.(Edited by) Billard, C; ; B. Booth; J. Christiansen; O. Moestrup; H.R. Preisig; ; J. Throndsen

2001. 260 pages, 204 figures, 4 tables, 14x22cm, 510 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Phycologica, Band 110)

ISBN 978-3-443-60037-2, paperback, price: 75.00 €

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Keywords

EnzyklopädieAlgeChrysophyteencyclopediaChrysophyte genera

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Recent advances in ultrastructural and molecular research have provided new understandings of relationships of traditional chrysophytes, and also many new genera have been described in the last two decades. In this encyclopedia 201 genera of chrysophytes known to date (plus numerous synonyms) are surveyed, namely 110 genera of Chrysophyceae sensu stricto and 58 additional genera, many of which have previously been accommodated in the Chrysophyceae, but are now placed in other classes of the Chromophyta/Heterokonta [i.e., Synurophyceae (8 genera), Dictyochophyceae (13 genera), Pelagophyceae (10 genera), Phaeothamniophyceae (16 genera) and "Bicosoecophyceae" (11 genera)]. Also treated are 33 insufficiently known genera of uncertain affinity, which probably do not belong to the Chrysophyceae sensu stricto, but which have often been assigned to this class (e.g., among others, genera included in the family Aurosphaeraceae and in the orders Chrysomeridales and Parmales).
The concept of classification presented in this book is very different from that in the last detailed monographs on freshwater Chrysophyceae by Bourrelly (1981) and Starmach (1985). We also include information on more than 80 genera which have not yet been treated by these authors. Almost 50 of these are marine and are now mostly classified in the Dictyochophyceae, Pelagophyceae and "Bicosoecophyceae", or belonging to the genera of uncertain chrysophyte affiliation. In comparison with these previous monographs a number of colourless flagellates (e.g., the choanoflagellates that were included in the Chrysophyceae as a separate subclass, Craspedomonadophycidae), have been taken away from this class, since they were shown to be related to different protistan lineages with no close relationships to heterokonts.

This volume is the result of an ambitious project, entitled "Encyclopedia of Algal genera" launched back in 1988 by Bruce Parker and sponsored by the Phycological Society of America.
A large team of coeditors and contributors was set down, so that all groups of algae could be covered. After some years, however, the project ran into difficulties and it became increasingly clear that it could not be completed so that in 1999 it was finally abandoned.
The manuscripts, in different states of completeness, were handed over to the Phycological Society of America, who, unfortunately, did not find it possible to continue the project and bring it to conclusion (publication).
The chrysophyte manuscripts, however, were almost complete and newly revised, and we found that all our work, together with that of the other chrysophyte contributors, should not be wasted, but published as a separate chrysophyte encyclopedia in Bibliotheca Phycologica.
The editors and contributors thank PSA who supported the idea and gave the necessary permissions.

Rev.: Microscopy and Imaging News February 2002 top ↑

In 1988 Bruce Parker conceived a grand, one might say grandiose, project: the encyclopaedia of algal genera. Bruce drew up a list of co-editors and contributors and secured the sponsorship of the Phycological Society of America.

Unfortunately, the project ran into difficulties and was finally abandoned in 1999. The manuscripts, in various states of completion, were handed over to the Phycological Society of America, which, for some reason, did not find itself able to continue the project and bring it to publication.

The part dealing with the chrysophyte, however, was almost complete and newly revised, and so that it should not be wasted it is now published as a separate chrysophyte encyclopaedia in the series Bibliotheca Phycologica.

Jorgen Kristiansen and Hans Preisig have edited the volume, with contributions by C. Billard, B. Booth, J. Christiansen, O. Moestrup and J. Throndsen. Jorgen Kristiansen of Copenhagen is well-known for his work on Chrysophyceae (for instance, he was co-editor of Chrysophyte Algae: Ecology, Phylogeny and Development1). Hans Preisig of Zurich is known for his studies of high mountain lakes. Both are skilled and respected phycologists and bring to this book a wealth of practical knowledge.

The Chrysophyceae were first described (though not under that name) over 200 years ago. It was in 1914 that Pascher2 erected them into a class, and lumpedthe Chrysophyceae, the Diatomophyceae and the Xanthophyceae in the division Chrysophyta. The Chrysophyceae, the golden brown algae, were last subject to detailed monographs in 1981 (Bourrelly3) and 1985 (Starmach4). This monograph far, far more than a mere revision. The advent of molecular biology has led to a revolution on the classification of this difficult group, in the same way the spread of electron microscopy made possible the major revisions of, for example, Hibberd5 and Silva6.

The authors have removed from the Chrysophyceae a number of colourless flagellates (such as the choanoflagellates that were included as the separate subclass, Craspedomonadophycidae) These, they say, "have been shown to be related to different protistan lineages with no close relationships to heterokonts." What a shame they removed the choanoflagellates just as they hit the headlines for the first time (see page A1).

In the introduction the authors remark:

"When we speak of chrysophytes in this book, this name also includes the Dictyophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Phaeothemniophyceae and 'Bicosoecophycea' (i.e. those classes of heterokonts of which many members have previously been included in the Chrysophyceae). Also included are genera of uncertain affinity, which probably do not belong to the Chrysophyceae [sensu stricto], but which have often been assigned to this class . . Furthermore, all genera are listed which have also been assigned to the Chrysophyceae, but which are now considered to be synonyms of other genera treated in this book . .

This monograph includes information on more than 80 genera - almost 50 of them marine - which were not treated by the previous studies of Bourrelly3 and Starmach4.

In this work 201 genera of chrysophytes currently known (plus their many synonyms) are surveyed. This figure includes 110 genera of Chrysophyceae sensu stricto and 58 additional genera, many of which have been formerly put in the Chrysophyceae, but are now placed in other classes of the Chromophyta/Heterokonta; such as Synurophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Phaeothamniophyceae and "Bicosoecophyceae". Also treated are 33 insufficiently known genera of uncertain affinity, which probably do not belong to the Chrysophyceae sensu stricto, but which have often been assigned to it (for example, Aurosphaeraceae, Chrysomeridales and Parmales).

The descriptions are clear and concise, giving author and reference for theoriginal description, taxonomic position, type species, major synonyms, number of species and key references. The illustrations are well-chosen and properly reproduced.

Being a bit of an algal twitcher, one of the pleasures in a monograph like this is the holiday planning. Adriamonas peritocrescens is found in the top layer of calcerous soil from a pasture in Holland. Chrysonephele palustris has only been found in an ephemeral swamp in Tasmania, Pseudosyncrypta volvox only in a pond near St. Petersburg. Polluted ponds in the Czech Republic have a large number of endemic species and Mycochrysis oligothiophila is known only from hydrogen sulphide-rich waters in Latvia. Best, surely, is Entodesmis scenedesmoides found growing on human skeletons in Papua-New Guinea (and what is the purpose of your visit sir?)

This is an excellent work, much needed. It has the high production values one expects from volumes in the Bibliotheca Phycologica (of which it forms the 110th part; what it must be to possess the whole series!). The format is very close to the seaweed keys produced by the Natural History Museum. It should be said that it is more reasonably priced, even though it comes from a commercial publisher rather than a registered charity with all the tax advantages that entails.

References:

1. Sandgren, C. D., Smol, J. P., Kristiansen, J. (Eds)(1995) Chrysophyte Algae: Ecology, Phylogeny and Development

2. Pascher, A. (1914) ?ber Flagellaten und Algen Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 32 pp. 136-160

3. Bourrelly, P. (1981) Les algues d'eau douce: II Algues jaunes et brunes (2nd. Ed.) N. Boub?e et Cie, Paris

4. Starmach, K. (1985) Chrysophyceae und Haptophyceae in: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. and Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Susswassserflora von Mitteleuropa, Vol. I G. Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart

5. Hibberd, D. J. (1976) The ultrastructure and taxonomy of the Chrysophyceae and Pyrmnesiophyceae (Haptophyceae): a survey with some new observations on the ultrastructure of the Chrysophyceae Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 72 pp. 55-80

6. Silva, P. C. (1980) names of classes and families of living algae Regnum Vegetabile 103 pp. 1-156

Mark Burgess

Microscopy and Imaging News February 2002

Table of Contents top ↑

Preface and Introduction 1
Table 1. Classes, orders, families and genera of chrysophytes 9
Table 2. Families / genera of "Bicosoecophyceae" 11
Table 3. Groups of uncertain chrysophyte affnity ll
Table 4. Synonyms to genera l2
Genera Acronema - Woronichiniella 15 - 260

Rev.: Nova Hedwigia 74, no. 3-4, 2002 top ↑

This book is the latest in the series of phycology volumes published
by J. Cramer. It is apparently a work arisen "from the dead".
According to the book' s Preface, this compendium of chrysophyte
genera is a story of survival/revival after the demise of the
Phycological Society of America's now defunct "Encyclopedia of Algal
Genera".


This handy soft-cover book of 260 pages includes an Introduction
(pp. 1-14) wherein the rationale for inclusion/exclusion of certain
groups is documented with reference to the modern literature
pertaining to chrysophyte classification. This section contains four
summary tables with information on classes, orders, families and
genera considered valid chrysophytes; families and genera of uncertain
affinities tochrysophytes; and, a list of synonyms to genera included
in the book. The main body of the book (pp. 15-260) is devoted to
descriptions of chrysophyte genera arranged in alphabetical order
(hence, I suppose, the title word "encyclopdia"). Each genus is thus
given slightly more than a page, on average, to explore its
nomenclature,taxonomic position, morphology and life history; included
here is an entry for the type species and one or more
illustrations. There has been an obvious attempt to reproduce the
originating author's illustrations where ver possible; hence, many
of the illustrations (from originals by Pascher, Conrad, Kent,
Korshikov, Skuja, etc.) will be recognized by observers familiar with
earlier chrysophyte books by Bourrelly (1968, 1981) and Starmach
(1968, 1985). Electron micrographs of silica scales are rovided for
most genera for which species are determined by scale microstructure
(Apedinella, Chrysodidymus, Chrysosphaerella, Mallomonas,
Parapedinella, Poly-lepidomonas, Pseudodendromonas, Spinif eromonas,
Synura, Tessellaria - but, a drawing for Paraphysomonas). Other
photographic illustrations are included only sparingly (restricted to
just 8 other genera).


A strength of the book is its inclusion of
all known "closely related" genera, but not presently recognized as
members of the class Chrysophyceae. These include 58 genera now
assigned to the "Bicosoecophyceae", Dictyochophyceae,
Pelagophyceae,Phaeothamniophyceae and the Synurophyceae, and 33 other
genera whose affinities are uncertain. Still, the lines are clearly
drawn; those "in" (Chrysophyceae sensustricto of which 110 genera are
described) are clearly differentiated from the "others".


Because the book lacks a formal dichotomous key to genera, it is
perhaps less useful as a guide to those learning to identify
chrysophytes than to
those students of chrysophyte biology, biodiversity and phylogeny
for whom the up-to-date and comprehensive information and literature
sources will make this volume a valuable reference.


K.H. NICHOLLS, S-15 Conc. 1, RR # 1, Sunderland, Ontario, Canada L0C

Nova Hedwigia 74, no. 3-4, 2002