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Tanja Pfeiffer:

Terricolous bryophyte vegetation of New Zealand temperate rain forests - Communities, adaptive strategies and divergence patterns

Studies in austral temperate rain forest bryophytes, 14

2003. 188 pages, 54 figures, 7 tables, 390 g
Language: English

(Bryophytorum Bibliotheca, Band 59)

ISBN 978-3-443-62031-8, paperback, price: 80.00 €

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Contents

Synopsis top ↑

In this study, terricolous bryophytes and bryophyte communities of New Zealand primary temperate rain forests are examined, analysing community structure, adaptations, adaptive strategies and divergence patterns.
Relevés according to the Braun-Blanquet methods were carried out in forest plots located at ~ 200 m intervals in seven transects on the South and North Islands, extending from lowland to subalpine altitudes (Haast Pass, Franz-Josef-Glacier, St Amaud, Karamea, Mt Ruapehu, Urewera I and II).

Contents top ↑

1 Introduction 6
2 Study areas 8
2.1 Topography 8
2.2 Geomorphology and geological history 8
2.3 Major geological features today: Alpine fault and volcanism 10
2.4 Climate and weather 11
2.4.1 Palaeoclimate 11
2.4.2 Climate and weather today 11
2.5 New Zealand vegetation 13
2.5.1 Palaeofloras and vegetation history 13
2.5.2 Extant New Zealand flora 13
2.5.3 Present temperate rain forest vegetation 14
2.5.4 Beech gap 15
2.6 Study areas, transects 18
2.6.1 Haast Pass 18
2.6.2 Franz-Josef-Glacier 18
2.6.3 St Arnaud 20
2.6.4 Karamea 21
2.6.5 Mt Ruapehu 22
2.6.6 Urewera 22
3 Material and Methods 23
3.1 Fieldwork 23
3.1.1 General remarks 23
3.1.2 Relevés 23
3.1.3 Collecting 24
3.1.4 Determination of species 24
3.2 Analysis and circumscription of bryophyte communities 26
3.3 Analysis of adaptations and adaptive strategies 26
3.3.1 Investigated characters 26
3.3.2 Quantitative data analysis 28
3.3.3 Technical equipment 28
4 Adaptive strategies - the fundamentals 29
4.1 Life form 29
4.2 Reproduction biology 30
4.2.1 Generative (sexual) reproduction 30
4.2.2 Vegetative (asexual) reproduction s.l. 32
4.3 Colonisation 33
5 Results 35
5.1 Specimens 35
5.1.1 Critical taxa and problematic identifications in the field 35
5.2 Community analysis 36
5.2.1 General remarks 36
5.2.2 Community descriptions 37
5.2.2.1 Acrocladium chlamydophyllum-community 37
5.2.2.2 Leptotheca gaudichaudii-community 39
5.2.2.3 Dendroligotrichum dendroides-community 39
5.2.2.4 Stands dominated by Dicranoloma spp. 39
5.2.2.5 Hypnodendron spp.-communities 41
5.2.2.6 Communities of Hypopterygiacean species 43
5.2.2.7 Communities of dendroid Metzgerialean taxa 43
5.2.2.8 Ptychomnion aciculare-community 46
5.2.2.9 Schistochila nobilis-community 49
5.2.2.10 Thuidium spp.-community 49
5.2.3 Distribution of communities in transects 51
5.2.3.1 Transect 1: Haast Pass 51
5.2.3.2 Transect 2: Franz-Josef-Glacier 52
5.2.3.3 Transect 3: St Arnaud 53
5.2.3.4 Transect 4: Karamea 54
5.2.3.5 Transect 5: Mt Ruapehu 55
5.2.3.6 Transect 6: Urewera I 56
5.2.3.7 Transect 7: Urewera II 57
5.3 Adaptive strategies 58
5.3.1 General remarks 58
5.3.2 Life forms 71
5.3.3 Breeding system 72
5.3.4 Seta lengths 74
5.3.5 Frequency of sexual reproduction 74
5.3.6 Clonal reproduction 75
5.3.6.1 Mode 'a': Production of numerous gametophytes from a single spore 75
5.3.6.2 Mode 'b': Decay of older parts 75
5.3.6.3 Mode 'c': Shoots developed from stoloniferous or rhizome-like axes 77
5.3.6.4 Mode 'd': Initiation of shoots from rhizoid systems 84
5.3.6.5 Mode 'e': Basitonic innovation plants 84
5.3.6.6 Mode 'f': Innovation from primordia 85
5.3.6.7 Mode 'g': Fragmentation 87
5.3.6.8 Relevance of clonal reproduction 88
5.3.7 Vegetative reproduction s.str. 89
5.3.7.1 Regeneration from ± specialised caducous organs 89
5.3.7.2 Production of specialised propagules 91
5.3.7.2.1 Protonemal gemmae 91
5.3.7.2.2 Gemmae s.str. 91
5.3.7.2.3 Rhizoidal tubers 92
5.3.7.3 Relevance of vegetative reproduction s.str. 92
5.3.8 Reproductive strategies 93
5.3.9 Life span 94
5.3.10 Potential dispersal 96
5.3.11 Distribution 97
5.4 Adaptive strategies along gradients 99
5.4.1 Latitudinal gradient: transects 99
5.4.2 Altitudinal zonation 106
5.4.3 Forest types 110
6 Discussion 113
6.1 Community structure 113
6.2 Adaptive strategies 114
6.2.1 General characters and adaptations 114
6.2.2 Clonal reproduction and colonisation 118
6.3 Divergence of adaptive strategies along gradients 121
6.3.1 Forest type - gradient 121
6.3.2 Latitudinal gradient 122
6.3.3 Altitudinal gradient 124
7 Summary 127
Acknowledgements 130
8 References 131
9 Appendix 146