Helene Bischler:

Liverworts of the Mediterranean

Ecology, diversity and distribution

2004. 252 pages, 67 figures, 34 tables, 14x23cm, 490 g
Language: English

(Bryophytorum Bibliotheca, Band 61)

ISBN 978-3-443-62033-2, paperback, price: 70.00 €

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BibTeX file


liverworts mediterranean phanerogamic diversity Lebermoos Leberblümchen Mittelmeer Samenpflanzen Vielfalt


Synopsis top ↑

This volume presents a modern overview of the ecology, diversity and distribution of Mediterranean liverworts based on field data from all over the Mediterranean area. It is subdivided into nine sections, the first of which describes the sampling, data assessment and the statistical methods (multivariate analyses) used. Section two presents a summary of the geological history of the Mediterranean, its geograpic extent, climatic and edaphic conditions, and the characteristics of its phanerogamic vegetation. Liverwort biotopes and biocenoses are analysed in the third section, defining eight ecological species groups associated with specific biotopes.
The co-variation of life history traits is analysed in section four. Six groups of species sharing similar patterns are defined on this basis, followed by a summary of the scant knowledge of genetic polymorphism and community variations in mediterranean liverworts (section five).
Liverwort diversity in the Mediterranean is covered in the sixth section, and a study of the species distribution patterns, endemism, floristic contributions from adjacent zones, east-west differences, the characteristics of island floras and floristic similarities of other areas with a Mediterranean-type climate is presented (seventh section). Section eight thoroughly summarizes the results of this study. The ninth section documents ecological and distributional data, illustrated by maps for each of the sampled species.

Contents top ↑

Abstract 7
Introduction 9
Acknowledgements 11
1. Materials and methods 13
1.1 The data set 13
1.1.1 Sampling 13
1.1.2 Environmental variables 16
1.1.3 Life history variables 18
1.1.4 Distributional data 18
1.2 Statistical treatments 20
1.2.1 Ecological analyses and ecological profiles of species 20
1.2.2 Analysis of life history traits 21
2. The Mediterranean 23
2.1 Brief survey of the geological history 23
2.2 Delimitation of the area 23
2.3 The climate and soils 24
2.4 The phanerogamic vegetation 25
3. Ecological groups of species 29
3.1 Link between species and biotopes 29
3.2 Levels of significance of the environmental variables 29
3.3 Ecological groups of species 31
3.4 Recurrence of the ecological groups in the Mediterranean 35
3.5 Distribution patterns of the species within the ecological groups 36
3.6 The ecological groups and the phanerogamic vegetation 40
3.7 Co-occurrence of taxa 40
3.8 Marker species of groups 41
3.9 Constancy of species to individual environmental variables 42
4. Life history patterns 43
4.1 Significance of the life history variables 43
4.2 Species groups sharing similar life history traits 45
4.3 Evolution of life history traits 48
4.4 Life history patterns and ecological groups 49
4.5 Distribution of the life history groups in the Mediterranean 52
4.6 Distribution patterns of the species within each life history group 52
5. Population and community variations 55
5.1 Genetic polymorphism in liverwort populations 55
5.2 Community variations 56
6. Diversity 59
6.1 Areas with high species diversity, or harbouring infrequent species 59
6.2 Local and regional diversity 59
6.3 Altitudinal zonation 60
6.4 Phanerogamic vegetation and liverwort diversity 61
7. Distribution 63
7.1 Numerical and taxonomic representation of liverworts in the
Mediterranean 63
7.2 The endemic and native Mediterranean species 64
7.3 Mediterranean species with wide distribution patterns 64
7.4 Adjacent zones that may have furnished elements to the liverwort flora 65
7.5 East-west and north-south differences 66
7.6 Island liverwort floras 67
7.7 Biological islands 69
7.8 Similarities between the floras of areas with Mediterraneantype
climates 70
8. Summary of observations 73
8.1 Consequences of the past history of the Mediterranean 73
8.2 Composition of the Mediterranean liverwort flora 74
8.3 The genetic structure of liverworts 75
8.4 Liverwort ecology 75
8.5 Life history traits 75
8.6 Diversity and distribution 76
8.7 Floristic similarities to other areas with a Mediterranean-type climate 76
8.8 Community variations 77
9. List of species, their ecology and distribution 79
9.1 Species list 79
10. References 233
Annex 1. Species recorded from the Mediterranean but not collected 237
Index 249