cover

Markus Hauck:

Ecology of epiphytic lichens in a montane spruce forest

Influence of forest dieback and forest management on chemical habitat conditions

2000. 1. edition, 232 pages, 96 figures, 46 tables, appendix, 14x22cm, 430 g
Language: English

(Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 327)

ISBN 978-3-443-64239-6, paperback, price: 46.00 €

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Keywords

lichenforestsprucesoildiebackhabitatFlechteWaldFichteBodenSterbenLebensraum

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Epiphytic lichen distribution on trunks of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and its dependency on chemical site conditions were studied in a montane woodland of the Harz Mountains in Northern Germany. Five forest stands were selected, which differed in injury due to forest dieback, in the type of forest management and in age. For testing the impact of forest dieback, a 160-year-old healthy (or only slightly affected) selectively-harvested forest was compared with a 150-year-old heavily damaged stand. Differences in tree damage between the stands are assumed to be due to soil conditions. The soil in the heathy stand was less acidified, whereas amounts and element content of incident precipitation did not differ between the stands.

Inhaltsverzeichnis top ↑

1 Introduction 6
2 Study area 9
2.1 Location of the study area 9
2.2 Sample plots 9
2.3 Geology and climate 12
2.4 Forest vegetation and utilisation history 12
2.5 Forest dieback 13
2.6 Epiphytic lichen flora 15
3 Methods 16
3.1 Estimation of tree vitality 16
3.2 Vegetation mapping 16
3.3 Nomenclature of taxa 17
3.4 Precipitation studies 17
3.4.1 Sampling of stem flow and incident precipitation 17

3.4.2 Sample preparation and chemical analyses 18
3.5 Substrate investigations 18
3.5.1 Sampling 19
3.5.2 Determination of water-holding capacity 19
3.5.3 Chemical analyses 19
3.6 Studies on element content of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes 19
3.7 Soil analyses 20
3.8 Measurements of gaseous deposition 20
3.9 Statistics 21
4 Distribution of epiphytes 22
4.1 Influence of forest dieback on epiphytic vegetation 22
4.1.1 Stand vitality 22

4.1.2 Vitality of the single phorophyte 25
4.2 Influence of forest management practice on epiphytic vegetation 39
5 Incident precipitation and its chemical composition 34
5.1 Amounts of precipitation 34
5.2 Element content 36
5.3 Correlations between parameters 36
6 Stem flow 37
6.1 Effects of forest dieback on quantity and chemical composition
of stem flow
6.1.1 Influence of stand vitality 37
6.1.1.1 Amounts of stem flow 37
6.1.1.2 Element content 37
6.1.2 Influence of the vitality of the single tree 41
6. 1.2.1 Amounts of stem flow 41
6.1.2.2 Element content 42
6.2 Effects of forest management on quantity and chemical
composition of stem flow 43
6.2.1 Amounts of stem flow 43
6.2.2 Element content 45
6.3 Correlations between parameters 47
6.4 Correlations with incident precipitation 48
7 Bark properties 49
7.1 Element content 49
7.1.1 Effects of forest dieback on substrate chemistry 49
7.1.1.1 Influence of stand vitality 49
7.1.1.2 Influence of the vitality of the single tree 50
7.1.2 Effects of forest management practice on substrate chemistry 52
7.2 Water-holding capacity 54
7.2.1 Effects of forest dieback on water-holding capacity 54
7.2.2 Effects of forest management practice on water-holding capacity 54
7.3 Correlations between the investigated bark properties 55
8 Element content of Hypogymnia physodes 57
8.1 Influence of stand vitality on lichen element content 57
8.2 Influence of the vitality of the single tree on lichen element
content 57
8.3 Correlations between element content of H. physodes, its
substrate and stem flow 58
8.4 Effects of the chemical environment on the K, Ca, and Mg
content of H. physodes 59
9 Soil conditions 60
10 Gaseous air pollutants 62
11 Relations between chemical site factors and epiphytic lichen
vegetation 63
11.1 Effects of stem flow 63
1 1.1.1 Hypogymnia physodes 63
11.1.2 Lecanora conizueoides 67
11.1.3 Species diversity 68
11.2 Effects of the substrate 70
11.2.1 Hypogymnia physodes 70
11.2.2 Lecanora conizueoides 74
11.2.3 Species diversity 75
11.3 Correlations between element content of Hypogymnia physodes
and its cover 78
12 Discussion 79
12.1 Species composition of epiphyte vegetation 79
12.1.1 Influence of forest dieback 79
12.1.2 Influence of forestry 85
12.2 Precipitation and element input into the sample plots 87
12.3 Different tree damages in stands F1 and W1 89
12.4 Significance of stem flow for the water balance of the forest
ecosystem 90
12.5 Modification of element deposition in the canopy 90
12.6 Relations between element content of stem flow, bark, soil, and
gaseous deposition 91
12.7 Influence of forest dieback on element deposition on the trunk
surface 94
12.8 Influence of forestry on element deposition on the trunk surface 96
12.9 Known effects of the chemical variables investigated on lichens 100
12.10 Possible effects of chemical site factors on lichen vegetation in
the investigated spruce stands 119
12.10.1 Forest dieback 119
12.10.2 Forest management practice 124
12.10.3 Relations between biological and geochemical diversity 125
12.11 General importance of chemical habitat conditions for
small-scale distribution of epiphytic lichens 126
13 Abstract 129
14 Acknowledgements 132
15 References 133
Appendix 162