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V. M. Gorlenko; G. A. Dubinina; S. I. Kuznetsov:

The ecology of aquatic micro-organisms

1983. IX, 252 pages, 99 figures, 44 tables, 16x24cm, 660 g
Language: English

(Die Binnengewässer, Band 28)

ISBN 978-3-510-40039-3, bound, price: 50.00 €

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Keywords

Binnengewässer micro-organism aquatic ecology mud sediment

Contents

Content Description top ↑

Lakes are bodies of water differing from each other in depth, in temperature conditions and salinity, in content of organic substances, etc. All this creates an enormous variety of ecological conditions. Problably one of the general characteristics, which so far has not been given enough attention, is the small amount of organic matter dissolved in the water.

Although even in the early works of Zobell & Grant (1942,1943) it was shown that aquatic micro-organisms are capable of developing on media where the amount of assimilable dissolved substances does not exceed 10 mg/l, so far isolation and estimation of micro-organisms has been carried out on media containing glucose or peptone at a concentration of 1 to 10 g/l. Thus a large number of micro-organisms has escaped the attention of researchers. The use of organic media of low nutrient content made it possible to throw new light on the character of aquatic microflora.

Using nutrient media containing small amounts of organic matter and enriched with deficient growth factors, vitamins etc., it was possible to show that micro-organisms, which do not grow on standard laboratory media but are very numerous in water medium and comprise autochthonous microflora of natural waters, play a major role in the cycle of organic matter. Another important factor which helped in the study of aquatic microflora was a detailed investigation of individual groups of micro-organisms. Much attention had been given to budding and stalked bacteria, gliding bacteria, saprophytic mycoplasmas and so on.

The study of photosynthetic bacteria has been particularly advanced, and the group of iron and manganese bacteria was systematized. It was found that distribution of some species of these groups of micro-organisms is closely connected with the conditions of the environment. It was shown that these organisms are often found in extremely narrow ecological niches. A third important factor in recent studies was the use of electron microscopy for the study of the morphology of aquatic bacteria, including those which do not grow on the usual nutrient media.

The use of new methods of investigation greatly widened our ideas about the morphological diversity of micro-organisms and their role in the cycle of substances in waters. Thus in this book we have tried to present information on organisms to which little attention had been paid earlier. We have introduced a number of corrections and additions to the description of bacteria included in the latest edition of Bergey's classification key (Buchanan & Gibbons 1974). Many of these corrections are based on our own observations on new species of micro-organisms. All this became possible because the range of our investigations included lakes of different degree of trophic levels, with different hydrological and temperature regimes.

We have described the physiology and biochemistry of individual organisms only where it was necessary to elucidate the causes of their development in a given ecological environment.

Contents top ↑

Preface of the editor V
Preface of the authors V
1. The habitat of aquatic bacteria 1
1.1 Principles of classification of lakes according to their trophic status 1
2. General characteristics of aquatic microflora 2
2.1 Main types of metabolism in micro-organisms 2
2.2 Basic approaches to the study of aquatic microflora 3
2.3 Total numbers of bacteria in waters of different type 6
2.31 Vertical distribution of bacteria in the water mass 6
2.32 Changes in bacterial numbers in an annual cycle in the aerobic zone 7
3. The ecology of micro-organisms participating in the cycle of organic
matter in bodies of water 9
3.1 The aerobic ecological zone 11
3.11 Physico-chemical characteristics 11
3.12 General characteristics of the microflora of the aerobic zone in
different types of lakes 12
3.121 Filamentous bacteria 17
3.122 Morphological characteristics of aquatic microflora, not obtained in
pure cultures 18
3.13 Ecological niches of the aerobic zone in different types of lakes 19
3.131 The ecological niche of the surface film of the water 19
3.132 Ecological niches of the water mass 22
3.132.1 The ecological niche of photosynthesis 22
3.132.2 The ecological niches of production of the biomass of heterotrophic
bacteria 28
3.132.3 The ecological niches of organic matter production by
chemolithoautotrophs 31
3.132.4 The ecological niches of organic matter destruction 34
3.133 The ecological niche of the thermocline in the aerobic zone 38
3.2 The microaerophilic zone 40
3.21 The ecological niche of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria 41
3.22 The ecological niche of methane-oxidizing bacteria 43
3.221 Main representatives 43
3.222 The intensity of methane oxidation 44
3.3 The anaerobic zone 49
3.31 Physico-chemical characteristics 49
3.32 General characteristics of microflora in the anaerobic zone 49
3.4 The ecological zone of mud sediments 50
3.41 Physico-chemical characteristics 50
3.42 The microbiological characteristics of mud sediments 54
3.421 Microzonality of structure of mud sediments and microflora
distributions 54
3.422 General characteristics of the microflora of mud sediments 55
3.43 The ecological niches of mud sediments in lakes of different types 58
3.431 The ecological niches in muds of oligotrophic lakes 58
3.432 The ecological niches in dimictic mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes 59
3.432.1 The ecological niche of the surface layer of the mud 0-2 cm 60
3.432.2 The ecological niche of sulphate-reducing and methane-producing
bacteria 61
3.5 Conclusions 64
4. Species composition and ecology of micro-organisms taking part in the
nitrogen cycle 66
4.1 General characteristics of nitrogen cycle bacteria 66
4.11 Bacteria fixing free nitrogen 66
4.12 Micro-organisms involved in the mineralisation of organic nitrogen 68
4.13 Nitrifying bacteria 69
4.131 Oxidation of ammonia by heterotrophic organisms 71
4.14 Denitrifying bacteria 72
4.2 The ecology of the nitrogen cycle bacteria 74
4.21 Oligotrophicbodiesofwater 74
4.211 The ecological niche of surface layers of mud sediments 75
4.212 The ecological niches in lake littoral 76
4.22 Mesotrophic and eutrophic waters 77
4.221 Physico-chemical characteristics of the habitat 77
4.222 The ecology of nitrogen-fixing bacteria 78
4.223 The rates of free nitrogen fixation 80
4.223.1 Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) 80
4.223.2 Bacterial nitrogen fixation 83
4.224 The ecology of ammonifying bacteria 87
4.224.1 The intensity of ammonification processes 88
4.225 The ecology of nitrifying bacteria 90
4.225.1 The ecological niches of Vitrification processes 90
4.225.2 The potential capacity for Vitrification 91
4.226 The ecology of denitrifying bacteria 92
4.226.1 The nature of denitrification and the distribution of bacteria
in ecological niches 92
4.226.2 The intensity of denitrification processes 93
4.227 Liberation of molecular nitrogen from mud sediments 95
5. Micro-organisms reducing and oxidizing sulphur compounds 97
5.1 Characteristics of micro-organisms of the sulphur cycle 98
5.11 Micro-organisms taking part in the liberation of sulphur from
organic compounds 98
5.12 The dissimilatory reduction of sulphates 99
5.13 Thiobacteria 102
5.14 Colourless sulphur bacteria 104
5.15 Photosynthetic bacteria 105
5.2 The ecology of micro-organisms of the sulphur cycle 117
5.21 The ecology of sulphate-reducing bacteria 119
5.22 The ecology of micro-organisms oxidising reduced compounds of
sulphur 123
5.221 The characteristics of development of sulphur bacteria in shallow
waters 126
5.221.1 Micro-organisms which change from the benthic to the planktonic way
of life 126
5.221.2 Benthic unicellular non-motile forms, tolerant to oxygen 127
5.221.3 Benthic non-motile forms, strict anaerobes 127
5.221.4 Benthic filamentous forms, which move by gliding over the substrate 127
5.222 Development of phototrophic and colourless sulphur bacteria in
saline waters 127
5.222.1 Physico-chemical parameters in water and mud sediments of saline
shallow waters 128
5.222.2 The structure of the benthic community 129
5.222.3 Limiting factors 131
5.223 Development of sulphur bacteria in shallow freshwaters sub jected
to mixing 131
5.224 The role of some environmental factors in the distribution and
species composition of sulphur bacteria 134
5.224.1 Salinity 134
5.224.2 Light regime 135
5.224.3 Hydrogen sulphide, oxygen and oxidation-reduction potential 135
5.224.4 pH of the environment 136
5.224.5 Temperature 136
5.225 The development of photosynthetic, thionic and colourless
sulphur bacteria in tratified waters containing hydrogen sulphide in
the water layer 137
5.225.1 Oligotrophic meromictic lakes 137
5.225.2 Dimictic mesotrophic and eutrophic freshwater lakes 139
5.225.3 Dystrophic lakes of South Karelia 145
5.225.4 Mesotrophic meromictic lakes 146
5.225.5 EutrophiCfreshwatermeromicticlakes 152
5.225.6 Mesotrophic meromictic lakes with access to the sea 154
5.225.7 Eutrophic meromicticsaltlakes 157
5.225.8 Acidicvolcaniclakes 160
5.226 The role of physico-chemical factors in the distribution of
phototrophic, thionic
and colourless sulphur bacteria in the water mass of lakes 162
6. Species composition and ecology of micro-organisms oxidising iron and
manganese 167
6.1 General characteristics of iron bacteria 167
6.11 The pathways of iron and manganese oxidation by micro-organisms 168
6.12 The physiological role of iron and manganese oxidation processes 170
6.13 The taxonomy of the iron bacteria group 170
6.2 The ecology of iron bacteria 181
6.21 Conditions for the development of iron bacteria in different
types of waters 181
6.211 Oligotrophic dimictic lakes 181
6.212 Oligotrophic meromictic lakes 185
6.213 Mesotrophic dimictic lakes 187
6.214 Mesotrophic meromictic lakes 189
6.215 Mesotrophic lakes with the accumulation of iron-manganese lake-ore 191
6.216 Dimictic eutrophic lakes 198
6.217 Meromictic eutrophic lakes 203
6.218 Dystrophicdimicticlakesandbogs 203
6.219 Iron-rich ("siderotrophic") acidic lakes 208
6.22 The effect of physico-chemical factors on the development of iron
bacteria 210
6.23 The characteristics of the ecological niches of iron bacteria 217
6.24 The ecological forms of iron bacteria 219
6.25 The role of iron bacteria in oxidation and sedimentation of iron
and manganese 221
7. Conclusion 223
References 225
Species Index 245
Subject Index 250