Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) - Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors

Ed.: Gerd Alberti; Elliot W. Kitajima

2014. 192 pages, 112 figures, 3 tables, 23x31cm, 1100 g
Language: English

(Zoologica, Heft 160)

ISBN 978-3-510-55047-0, paperback, price: 199.00 €

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Synopsis top ↑

Volume 160 of Zoologica documents the first extensive study of the anatomy and fine structure of Brevipalpus mites (Tenuipalpidae), commonly termed false spider mites or flat mites.
They are widespread plant pests and hence of economic importance. Of the more than 200 described species of the genus Brevipalpus only three were identified as vectors of several destructive plant viruses since 1940, causing losses on a variety of crops with damages of tens of millions of dollars. The chapters of this monograph focus on the mouthparts (gnathosoma), digestive system, prosomal glands, and male and female reproductive organs of Brevipalpus. Remarks on the nervous and the tracheal system are also included. An introductory and a concluding chapter present a state-of-the-art report on the knowledge of the viruses transmitted by Brevipalpus, and their relationship to the mite vector. A number of striking peculiarities are revealed, which help to understand the path of these viruses through the mite. Then the complex stylet apparatus that pierces the plant tissue as well as the food channel and following digestive tract are described, through which viruses reach the almost lumen-less midgut. The prosomal glands with their ducts involved at least partly in virus transmission are also described in detail. This work sheds new light on the reproductive system of these mites, which includes – besides a very peculiar structural organization – the exceptional phenomenon of haploid parthenogenesis and sex manipulation by Cardinium bacteria.

This volume is of relevance to researchers working in the fields of plant parasitology, plant pest control or plant virology. It should also be of great interest to biologists studying arthropod structure, host-plant parasite interaction, or reproductive biology.

Contents top ↑

Part 1: An Update on the Biology and Economical Importance of Brevipalpus Mites
Abstract 1
Introduction 1
Main characteristics of the diseases caused by Brevipalpus
mite-transmitted viruses (BTV) 2
Symptoms 2
Nature of BTV 2
1. Cytoplasmic type (BTV-C) 2
2. Nuclear type (BTV-N) 2
Biology of Brevipalpus mites 4
Geographical distribution of Brevipalpus and BTV 5
Taxonomy 5
BTV/vector relationship 7
References 7
Part 2: Gnathosoma
Abstract 11
Introduction 11
Material and Methods 12
Results 14
General 14
Gnathosoma 14
Cheliceral frame with chelicerae 14
Infracapitulum 22
Discussion 42
Acknowledgements 63
References 63
Part 3: Digestive System
Abstract 67
Introduction 67
Material and Methods 68
Results 68
Digestive tract 68
General 68
Preoral cavity and foregut 69
Midgut 72
Hindgut 76
Fat body 78
Microorganisms 79
Discussion 81
Acknowledgements 92
References 92
Part 4: Prosomal Glands
Abstract 95
Introduction 95
Material and Methods 96
Results 96
Podocephalic gland system 96
Podocephalic canals 99
Anterior podocephalic gland 99
Dorsal podocephalic gland 99
Coxal gland 99
Tracheal gland 105
Discussion 105
Acknowledgements 111
References 111
Part 5: Male Reproductive System
Abstract 113
Introduction 113
Material and Methods 114
Results 114
Testes 114
Deferent ducts 119
Seminal vesicle 119
Ejaculatory duct 122
Penis (aedeagus) 123
Discussion 126
Acknowledgements 143
References 143
Part 6: Female Reproductive System
Abstract 145
Introduction 145
Material and Methods 146
Results 146
Ovary 148
Oviduct 152
Vagina 157
Genital opening 157
Insemination system 157
Putative sperm cells 159
Discussion 159
Acknowledgements 170
References 170
Part 7: Ultrastructural Detection of Cytoplasmic and
Nuclear Types of Brevipalpus-transmitted Viruses

Abstract 173
Introduction 173
Material and Methods 174
Sources of the examined mites 174
Cytoplasmic types 174
Nuclear type 174
Processing for transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) 176
Results 176
BTV-C 176
BTV-N 177
Discussion 182
Acknowledgements 190
References 190