Synopsis top ↑
Volume 161 of Zoologica reviews and analyses the evolution and phylogeny of bees.
It is subdivided into two parts
Part One: A Preamble to the Evolution and Phylogeny of Bees provides a complete and critical review of all previous attempts to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of bees (Anthophila / Apiformes) based on morphological, bionomic and molecular approaches and presented in chronological sequence up to and including recent publications. At the same time, the introductory part examines trends in the classification of bees and compares available hypotheses of bee evolution. Part One closes with a family-wise delineation of the fossil history of bees.
Part Two: A Phylogenetic Study of Bees in
Light of Morphological Evidence
experimental study to complement the bibliographical analysis provided in Part One.
The phylogenetic relationships of the larger taxonomic units of bees are tested anew using an extensive dataset of selected morphological features. The study uses all common and current computer-aided techniques of cladistic analysis (parsimony, successive/implied weight, Bayesian and neighbor-joining), which are applied to representatives of all seven families, 22 subfamilies and 48 of 58 tribes of bees. The conclusions drawn from this are evaluated for the major groups (i.e., short-tongued and long-tongued bees), and separately for the families, subfamilies and tribes in each case.
In a world currently dominated by molecular genetic approaches to phylogeny, this study clearly demonstrates that it is not anachronistic to engage in morphological efforts, because progress can be significantly advanced and the pool of available scientific arguments enriched. The diversity of the object of investigation justifies a variety of methods.
This monograph is a much needed reference work of high practical value for everybody interested in bee evolution, phylogeny and morphology. It addresses researchers and students alike.