Manfred P. Gwinner:

Origin of the Upper Jurassic Limestones of the Swabian Alb (Southwest Germany)

1976. IV, 75 pages, 66 figures, 6 tables, 16x24cm, 260 g
Language: English

(Contributions to Sedimentary Geology, Volume 5)

ISBN 978-3-510-57005-8, paperback, price: 27.00 €

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sedimentgeologielimestoneSwabian AlbjurassicGermanySedimentGeologieKalksteinSchwäbische AlbJuraDeutschland


Synopsis top ↑

The Upper Jurassic of the Swabian Alb is characterized by a special association of facies types: A sequence of micritic limestones and marls interfingers with bioherms. These bioherms were produced by algae and siliceous sponges. The algae formed either calcareous crusts without internal structures or stromatolites, growing mostly on the sponges. The sponges are in general preserved as calcareous matter. The bioherms did not produce true reef detritus. They were growing in relatively deep and quiet water. This is also confirmed by the presence of the siliceous sponges, by the ammonite fauna and by the relation to the micritic sediments. A shallowing of the sea took place towards the end of the Jurassic. This becomes obvious by the occurence of corals and even coral reefs, and the deposition of bioclastic and oolitic limestones.

The micritic “normal” facies sequence consists of a rhythmic succession of marls and limestones which is also represented to a certain degree within the bioherm areas. Within the older members of the Jurassic the rhythmic sequences can be correlated quite well over greater distances, but towards the younger beds the sedimentation was more and more influenced by local conditions. This is also an indication to the shallowing of the sea.

Within the sequence of the Upper Jurassic there is a variety of other rocks and phenomena: slumping structures, resedimentary, intraformational breccias, dolomites and dedolomites, siliceous concretions, and calcirhythmites.

Table of Contents top ↑

Abstract, Zusammenfassung 1

1. Preface 2

3. Normal Facies 6
3.1 General Remarks 8
3.2 Oxford Marls (Weißer Jura alpha), ox1 9
3.3 Oxford Limestones (Weißer Jura beta), ox2 10
3.4 Kimmeridge Marls (Weißer Jura y), ki1 12
3.5 Middle Kimmeridge Limestones (Weißer Jura delta), ki2 12
3.6” Upper Kimmeridge Limestones (Weißer Jura epsilon), ki3 16
3.7 Liegende Bankkalke, Tithonian (Weißer Jura zeta), tiL 17
3.8 Cement Marls, Tithonian (Weißer Jura zeta2), tiZ 17
3.9 Hangende Bankkalke, Tithonian (Weißer Jura zeta 3), tiH 20
3.10 List of Publications on Normal Facies
4. Algal—Sponge Bioherms 21
4.1 General Remarks 21
4.2 Sponges 22
4.3 Calcareous Crusts 23
4.4 “Tuberoids” 25
4.5 Stromatolites
4.6 Algal—Sponge Bioherms 27
4.7 Submarine Paleorelief 29
4.8 Fossils of the Algal-Sponge Bioherm Facies 33
4.9 Sessile Organism on Sponges 37
4.10 Paleogeography of the Algal—Sponge Facies 38
5. Coral Facies 45
6. Bioclastic and Oolitic Limestones 49
7. Submarine Slumping, Breccias and Resedimentation 52
8. Calcirhythmites and Calcareous Shales 55
9. Dolomite and Saccharoidal Limestones 58
10. Siliceous Concretions 62
11. Water Depth of the Jurassic Sea in Swabia 64
12. Paleotemperature 66
13. Paleogeography and Landscape in the Swabian Alb 66
14. Field Guide 68
References 71