North Sea 2000

Part 2: State of the Art in Environmental Parameters at the End of the 20th Century

2004. 172 pages, 34 figures, 20 tables, 21x30cm, 770 g
Language: English

(Senckenbergiana maritima, Band 34 Heft 1/2)

ISBN 978-3-510-61366-3, paperback, price: 56.00 €

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BibTeX file


atmospheric physical chemical parameter North Sea Atmosphäre physisch chemisch Parameter Nordsee


Content Description top ↑

Processes and phenomena in the North Sea depend on the atmospheric forcing (e.g. wind speed, radiation), and the processes and phenomena in the ocean influence the atmosphere. This article focuses on the atmospheric parameters in the North Sea region. A general discussion of the relevance of the atmospheric parameters for the North Sea system is presented in the following sections.

Contents top ↑

Schlünzen, K. H. & Krell, U.:
Atmospheric Parameters for the North Sea: A Review
Introduction 1
Relevance of the atmospheric parameters for the North Sea 2
Scales in atmosphere, ocean and biosphere 2
Stocktaking and detailed assessment 4
Data situation of the atmospheric parameters 4
Physical atmospheric parameters 5
Emission data 10
Concentration data 12
Process understanding 15
Momentum flux 15
Heat flux 18
Radiation flux 20
Precipitation and clouds 22
Deposition of contaminants 23
Emissions from the ocean 25
Models for atmospheric parameters 27
Models for physical parameters 29
Models for chemical parameters 32
Conclusions 36
Instruments and methods for atmospheric parameters 36
Instruments and methods for maritime application 36
Historical development and changes of routine observations 39
Multidisciplinary assessment 40
Data situation of atmospheric parameters 40
Process understanding 41
Atmospheric models 42
Instruments and methods for atmospheric parameters 43
Conclusions 43
References 45
Lenhart, H.-J. & Pohlmann, T.:
North Sea Hydrodynamic Modelling: a Review
Introduction 54
The role of models in management and decision making 54
Stocktaking and detailed assessment 55
General model description 55
Presentation of selected models for the North Sea 56
Detailed description of different models 56
Model categories 57
Mathematical formulation and numerial forcing 57
Model forcing 58
Model comparisons, a critical view 59
Overwiev an model comparison 59
Flushing times 59
Tidal flow forum 60
ASMO workshops 62
Study by Haidvogel & Beckmann (1998) 63
Conclusions from model intercomparison 65
Multidisciplinary assessment 66
Internal dynamics 66
Advection 67
Advection used in applied studies 67
Diffusion 68
Turbulence data for process studies 68
1D approach in applied models 69
External forcing for models 69
Forcing through lateral boundaries 69
Tides 70
Advection over external boundaries 70
North Atlantic 70
English Channel 70
Baltic Sea 70
River discharge 71
Exchange with Wadden Sea 72
Fluxes through the atmosphere - sea interface 72
Fluxes through the sea bottom 72
Role of observational data 73
Observational methods 73
Employment of observational data for modelling 74
Availability of observational data for model initialisation 74
Availability of observational data for model forcing 76
Model validation 77
Further perspectives for model development 78
Climatological datasets for temperature and salinity 78
Topcu, D. H. & Brockmann, Ul:
Nutrients and Organic Compounds in the North Sea
(Concentrations, Dynamics and Methods); a Review
Introduction 90
Stocktaking and detailed assessment 90
Data situation in the North Sea 90
Nutrients 90
DOM 101
POM 104
Elemental rations 105
Process understanding 106
External sources and sinks of nutrients, DOM, POM 106
External sources and sinks: Abiotic processes 109
Internal sources and sinks: Biotic processes 112
Carbonate system 121
Model development 122
General chemical models 122
Sorption/desorption models 122
Scavenging 123
Combined processes 123
Instruments and methods 124
Measurements strategies 124
Sampling 125
Fixation and storage 126
Fractionation 126
Extraction 127
Combustion 127
Analyses: bulk parameters 127
Analyses individual compunds 132
Analyses supplementary parameters 136
Multidisplinary assessment 136
Data situation 136
Missing links: scales, combinations 136
Fluxes of matter 136
Process understanding 137
Eutrophication 137
Vertical fluxes, scavenging 144
Accumulation 144
Accumulation and degradation of contaminants 145
Sedimentation 146
Remobilization 146