cover

German Müller:

Methods in sedimentary petrology

1967. XII, 283 pages, 91 figures, 31 tables, 18x25cm, 1000 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65006-4, paperback, price: 25.00 €

in stock and ready to ship

Order form

BibTeX file

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

This description of sedimentologic techniques by G. Müller is the first part of a treatise in which the authors attempt to summarize present knowledge of sedimentary rocks. They will emphasize the physico-chemical nature of the processes of sediment formation and the mineralogical nature of sedimentary material.
It seems advisable to begin this task by first dealing with all important observational methods that are known today in the field of sedimentology. Only one who knows these methods well can critically evaluate and apply their results to the formation and diagenesis of sediments.
The second part, in which all three authors participate, will begin with a general chapter on the origin of sediments, in which weathering, transportation, deposition, crystallization, and diagenesis will be discussed. Then the main groups of sedimentary rocks, such as conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, shales, and carbonate rocks, will be discussed individually, as well as rocks formed under special conditions. Finally a chapter on the equilibrium and movement of pore-filling material is planned, as well as one on geochemical questions. Also, im portant technical and geophysical properties of sedimentary rocks will be briefly discussed.

Table of Contents top ↑

1. Geophysical methods 1
1.1 Gravimetric measurements (gravimetry) 1
1.2 Reflection seismology 1
1.21 Application of reflection seismologic methods to Recent subaqueous
sediments 2
1.3 Electrical, radioactive, and seismic well-measurements 4
1.31 General considerations 4
1.32 Technique of well-measurement 4
1.33 Electrical well-logs 4
1.331 Spontaneous potential 4
1.332 Resistivity log 6
1.332.1 Relations between electrical resistivity and reservoir properties of a rock 7
1.34 Radioactive well measurements 9
1.341 Natural gamma radiation 9
1.342 Gamma radiation induced by neutron bombardment 9
1.35 Seismic well measurements10
2. Sampling and field study of sediments 12
2.1 Field methods12
2.11 Determination of grain size 12
2.111 Visual estimation 12
2.112 Use of standard sieved samples13
2.113 Measurement with a special hand lens (“pocket-microscope”) 13
2.114 Azmons field sieving method 14
2.115 Determination of the “smallest diameter” from the approximate settling velocity of particles 14
2.12 Gravel analysis 15
2.121 Morphometric gravel analysis 15
2.121.1 The flatness of pebbles 15
2.121.2 The roundness of pebbles 16
2.122 Pebble counts (petrogenetic analysis) 16
2.123 Pebble orientation 16
2.13 Determination of the carbonate content 17
2.131 Estimation of the total carbonate content 17
2.132 Distinction between calcite and dolomite in carbonate rocks 18
2.132.1 Staining of the dolomitic material 18
2.132.2 Staining of calcitic material 19
2.14 Measuring directions in rocks 19
2.141 Strike and dip 19
2.142 Determination of transport direction in sand- and siltstones 20
2.15 Measurement of water transparency (turbidity measurement) 20
2.151 Determination of the visibility depth with the SECCHI-disc 20
2.152 The “transparency meter” after Sauberer 21
2.16 Measurement of sedimentation and sediment transport 22
2.161 Measurement of sedimentation 22
2.162 Measurement of sediment transport 22
2.2 Sampling 23
2.21 Normal sampling in outcrops and cores 24
2.22 Special sampling in unconsolidated rocks 24
2.221 Use of hand drills 24
2.222 Use of hardening resins in the field 25
2.23 Collecting cuttings from drill holes 25
2.24 Collecting samples from water-covered sediments 26
2.241 Investigations of sediments by divers 26
2.242 Collecting sediment samples with a grab sampler 26
2.243 Collecting samples with coring devices (piston corer) 30
2.25 Size of sample 32
3. Investigation of sediments in the Laboratory 33
3.1 Preparation of samples 33
3.11 Drying of samples 33
3.12 Removal of water-soluble salts 33
3.13 Separation of pore solutions 34
3.14 The preparation of consolidated sediments 35
3.141 Preparation of carbonate sediments 35
3.141.1 Separation by acid treatment 35
3.141.2 Separation by treatment with complexing agents 36
3.141.3 Separation with an ion-exchanger 37
3.141.4 Separation by electro-dialysis 38
3.142 Preparation of clayey and silty sediments 38
3.142.1 Dispersion with hydrogen peroxide 38
3.142.2 Preparation with ultrasonic methods 39
3.143 Preparation of sandstones 40
3.143.1 Sandstones with clay matrix 40
3.143.2 Sandstones with a carbonate cement 41
3.143.3 Sandstones with silicious cement 41
3.143.4 Sandstones with ferrugineous cements 41
3.15 Splitting of samples 42
3.16 Preservation and impregnation of friable, brittle or damp sediments with artificial resins 44
3.17 Preparation of samples for microscopic examination 47
3.171 Preparation of thin sections 47
3.172 Preparation of grain mounts 49
3.172.1 Permanent grain mounts 49
3.172.2 Gelatine mounts 49
3.173 Preparation of lacquer peels (peel prints) from carbonate rocks 51
3.2 Mechanical analysis (grain size analysis) 52
3.21 Measurement of grain size 55
3.211 Generalities; definition 55
3.212 Grain size measurement of consolidated sandstones 58
3.212.1 Determination of sieve size distribution from thin section after Friedman 58
3.212.2 Determination of grain size distribution after Münzner
& Schneiderhöhn (1953) (random cut method) 60
3.212.3 Combined minéralogie, granulometric, and morphometric investigation of thin sections after Hörnsten (1959) 61
3.213 The microscopic determination of grain size in unconsolidated
sediments 63
3.22 Sieve analysis 64
3.221 Sample preparation and sample size 65
3.222 Sieves 65
3.223 Sieving; sieving machines 67
3.224 Effect of grain size, sample size, grain shape, and mesh width upon the sieving efficiency; sieving times 72
3.225 Relationship between grain shape and the grain size determined
by sieving 75
3.23 Grain size analysis by means of settling velocity (sedimentation) 76
3.231 Sedimentation analysis 76
3.231.1 Basic principles, general prerequisites 76
3.231.2 Sample preparation 79
3.231.3 Sedimentation in the ATTERBERG-cylinder 79
3.231.4 The pipette method 82
3.231.5 Sedimentation balances 84
3.231.6 Hydrometer methods 87
3.231.7 Centrifuge methods 88
3.231.8 Measurement of the optical density of suspensions (photometric method) 89
3.231.9 Sedimentation methods for coarse-grained sediments 89
3.232 Elutriation 90
3.233 Combined elutriation and sedimentation analysis 91
3.24 Presentation of results and evaluation of grain size analysis 93
3.241 Histogram 94
3.242 Frequency curve (grain size distribution curve) 94
3.243 Cumulative grain size curve 95
3.244 Evaluation of grain size analysis (graphic measures) 95
3.3 Fabric studies 97
3.31 Determination of shape and roundness of sand and silt grains 97
3.311 Determination of grain shape 98
3.312 Determination of roundness 101
3.312.1 Description 101
3.312.2 Methods of measuring 102
3.313 Measuring 104
3.32 Microscopic fabric studies 105
3.321 Visual methods 105
3.322 Measuring methods 106
3.322.1 Measuring fabric with a universal stage 106
3.322.2 Photometric measurement of the orientation of axes of quartz crystals 106
3.322.3 Use of fully automatic electronic counters for measuring grain orientation 107
3.33 X-ray fabric analysis with the counter or texture goniometer 109
3.34 Megascopic proof of oriented fabrics in apparently homogeneous sediments 110
3.341 X-ray radiography 110
3.342 Staining methods for revealing hidden or obscure fabric characteristics 112
3.343 Acid etching and treatment by sand-blasting 114
3.344 Relief molds from unconsolidated sediments 114
3.4 Obtaining of pure mineral fractions 115
3.41 Separation with manual selection instruments 115
3.42 Separation by heavy liquids 116
3.421 Extraction of heavy minerals from sandstones 119
3.421.1 Choice of grain size 119
3.421.2 Preparation of sand samples by chemical methods 120
3.421.3 Separation of heavy mineral fractions 120
3.422 Specific gravity of clay minerals 122
3.423 Specific gravity distribution in sediments 123
3.43 Separation with fixed pan and buddle 123
3.44 Magnetic separation 124
3.441 Principles 124
3.442 Separation with a hand magnet 125
3.443 Electromagnetic mineral separation 126
3.443.1 The “Frantz isodynamic magnetic separator” 126
3.443.2 Eisenblaetters “Analysateur pour substances parama-gnetiques” 129
3.443.3 Magnetic separation of clay minerals 129
3.45 Separation by flotation 129
3.46 Dielectric and electrostatic separation130
3.47 Enrichment of individual minerals by sieve and sedimentation analysis 131
3.48 Chemical mineral separation 132
3.5 Identification of minerals 132
3.51 Microscopic determination of the sediment-forming minerals 133
3.511 Mineral determination in coarse-grained sediments 133
3.511.1 The “rotating conoscopic” method for the investigation
of grain mounts 133
3.511.2 Determination of refractive index 134
3.511.21 Methods 134
3.511.22 Birefrigent minerals 135
3.511.23 Microscope refractometer for liquids 135
3.511.24 Immersion liquids137
3.511.3 Microscopic identification of carbonates 139
3.511.4 Microscopic determination of feldspars 140
3.511.5 Quantitative recording of the mineral content 142
3.511.51 Visual estimation and comparison with schematic representations142
3.511.52 Measurements in thin sections with the integration stage according to the RosiWAL-method 144
3.511.53 Point counter method 145
3.511.54 Modal analysis of loose sediments and disintegrated indurated rocks 150
3.512 Microscopy of fine-grained sediments 153
3.512.1 Preparation 153
3.512.2 Determination of morphologic properties 154
3.512.21 General information 154
3.512.22 Bright-field microscopy 155
3.512.23 The phase-contrast method 157
3.512.24 Transmitted light interference microscopy 157
3.512.25 Dark-field microscopy 158
3.512.3 Determination of the refractive index 158
3.512.31 Limits of error with bright-field and phase-con-trast observation 158
3.512.32 Application of the immersion method by changing the immersion liquid 159
3.512.33 Application of the evaporation method 159
3.513 Application of fluorescence microscopy for sediments 160
3.514 Microscopy of sub-microscopic particles 161
3.52 Staining methods for the determination and distinction of important sediment-forming minerals 162
3.521 Selective staining of the different carbonate minerals 162
3.522 Selective staining of potash feldspar and plagioclase 164
3.53 Quantitative chemical determination of the carbonate fraction 167
3.531 Gasometric carbon dioxide determination 167
3.532 Gravimetric carbon dioxide determination 170
3.533 Complexometric titration of calcium and magnesium 171
3.534 Photometric complexometric titration of Ca and Mg 178
3.54 X-ray analysis 179
3.541 The powder method 179
3.541.1 Recording methods 180
3.541.11 The photographic method (Debye-Scherrer method) 180
3.541.12 The counter tube-method (diffractometer method) 181
3.542 Preparation of powder samples for the counter tube method 183
3.542.1 Oriented samples 184
3.542.2 Unoriented samples186
3.543 Evaluation of X-ray diagrams; identification of sediment-forming minerals 186
3.543.1 Determination of carbonates; MgCO3-determination in calcite; determination of the calcite-dolomite ratio 190
3.543.2 Determination of sedimentary zeolites 192
3.543.3 Determination of feldspars 192
3.543.4 Identification of clay minerals 194
3.543.41 Structures of the layer silicates; classification 194
3.543.42 Procedure; special techniques 195
3.544 Quantitative X-ray analysis of fine-grained sediments 201
3.544.1 The principle of intensity measurements with the counter tube goniometer202
3.544.2 General equation for the relationship between peak intensity and concentration 203
3.544.3 Limiting conditions 205
3.544.31 Micro-absorption 205
3.544.32 Number of particles 208
3.544.33 Orientation 209
3.544.34 Sample dimensions 209
3.544.4 Application of the basis formula 210
3.544.41 Specific determination of a mixture’s components 210
3.544.42 Ratio of two components 212
3.544.43 Sensitivity of detection 213
3.55 Differential thermal analysis214
3.551 Principle of measurement; measuring instruments 215
3.552 Evaluation of results 217
3.553 Use of D.T.A. in the investigation of sedimentary rocks 217
3.553.1 Investigation of argillaceous sediments and soils 217
3.553.2 Distinguishing carbonate rocks 218
3.553.3 Investigation of coals 218
3.554 Possibilities of quantitative D. T. A. determinations 220
3.56 Infrared spectroscopy 220
3.6 Determination of organic matter in sediments 223
3.61 Finding oil traces in cuttings and chromatographic characterization of crude oils and solid carbohydrates 223
3.611 Finding traces of oil in cuttings by treatment with hot water after Schettler 223
3.612 Paper chromatography of liquid and solid carbohydrates 226
3.612.1 Paper chromatographic investigations with selective
solvents 226
3.612.2 Paper chromatographic characterization of crude oils according to Grimm & Fruh 227
3.62 Investigation of peat and coal 228
3.621 The distinction peat-lignite-coal228
3.622 Determination of the degree of coalification by microscopic measurement of reflection 229
3.63 Quantitative determination of the organically-bound carbon in
sediments 231
3.7 Investigation of pore space and pore content 232
3.71 Determination of the pore content 233
3.711 Water content 233
3.712 Oil content 234
3.72 Determination of porosity 235
3.721 Definition 235
3.722 The measurement of porosity of consolidated sedimentary rocks 236
3.722.1 The buoyancy method 236
3.722.11 Determination of the solid volume (Vw) 236
3.722.12 Determination of the pore volume (Vp) 237
3.722.13 Determination of the total volume (Vf) 238
3.722.2 The porosimeter method 238
3.722.21 Determination of the total volume (Vf) 239
3.722.22 Determination of the solid volume (Vf) 239
3.722.3 Determination of the solid volume (Vw) with the air-pycnometer 239
3.722.4 Determination of the solid volume (Vw) with the “Fekrumeter” after Krutzsch 240
3.723 Measuring of porosity of loose sediments 242
3.723.1 Dry or slightly moist sands 242
3.723.2 Water-covered sediments 243
3.73 Determination of pore size 244
3.74 Determination of permeability 244
3.741 Principles, calculation 244
3.742 Sample preparation 246
3.743 Measuring instrument and measurement 247
References 250
Appendix 269
Subject Index 276
Name Index 281