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Hans Füchtbauer:

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, 1.

With a contribution by: Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

1974. X, 464 pages, 199 figures, 39 tables, 18x24cm, 1200 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65007-1, paperback, price: 49.00 €

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Keywords

sedimentsedimentary rockpetrology

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

A geologist concerned with sedimentary rocks must first master the methods of field and laboratory investigation. Then, while accumulating his own observations, he becomes interested in the work and interpretation of other investigators, and finally, in a synthesis of our present knowledge about sedimentary rocks. He will want to know, how sediments presently form and what this tells us about old sediments; and he will have to concern himself with diagenesis, the agent which destroys primary structures and porosity, but which also forms or modifies economically important deposits. He is now in a position to synthesize this information and to justify those extrapolations, generalizations and speculations which provide the working theories for purposes of applied geology and for further research. In doing so, he becomes more and more interested in a quantitative understanding of the laws and forces behind geology.
This book is part of a three-part textbook on sedimentary petrology, which tries to provide graduate students, applied, teaching and research geologists with the necessary background for the three steps of investigation mentioned above.
It was the intention to present a condensed synopsis of composition, fabric, sedimentary structures, origin, and diagenesis of sedimentary rocks. The first chapter is a short review of the processes of formation of sedimentary rocks. It includes general ideas concerning compaction and sedimentary balance. The last chapter deals with cyclic processes and their manifestation in sedimentary sequences. "Authors' index" and "references" were combined. Emphasis was placed upon more recent references which will also allow the reader to find his way back to important older work.

Table of Contents top ↑

1.The Exogenous Cycle 1
1.1 Introductory notes 1
1.2 Weathering and soil formation 1
1.21 Mechanical weathering 1
1.22 Chemical weathering 2
1.23 Soils 2
1.3 Transport and deposition 3
1.4 Diagenesis 4
1.5 Sedimentary balance 6
2. Principles of Nomenclature 10
3. Sandstones, Conglomerates and Breccias 13
3.1 Primary components 13
3.11 Sandstones 13
3.111 Composition and nomenclature 13
3.112 Quartz 19
3.113 Rock fragments 22
3.114 Feldspars 24
3.115 Phyllosilicates 25
3.116 Heavy minerals 26
3.116.1 Distinguishing characteristics and identification key 26
3.116.2 Grain size of heavy minerals33
3.116.3 Stability of heavy minerals 39
3.116.31 Resistance to weathering 39
3.116.32 Resistance to transport 40
3.116.33 Resistance to intrastratal solution 40
3.116.4 Use of heavy minerals 42
3.12 Conglomerates and breccias 46
3.2 Texture, fabric and environment 51
3.21 Grain size 51
3.211 Grain size distribution 51
3.212 Regional variations in grain size 56
3.213 Grain size distribution as an environmental indicator 58
3.214 The matrix problem 61
3.22 Grain form 63
3.221 Shape 63
3.221.1 Shape of pebbles 64
3.221.2 Shape of sand grains 64
3.222 Roundness 65
3.222.1 Roundness of pebbles 65
3.222.2 Roundness of sand grains 67
3.223 Grain surface texture 69
3.23 Orientation 70
3.231 Orientation of pebbles 70
3.232 Orientation of sand grains 71
3.24 Stratification 72
3.241 Internal structures of sandstone beds 72
3.241.1 Horizontal bedding 73
3.241.2 “Flaser” and lenticular bedding 74
3.241.3 Cross-bedding 74
3.241.31 Origin and classification of cross-bedding 74
3.241.32 Variability of cross-bedding direction 78
3.241.4 Preconsolidation deformations 79
3.241.41 Mottled structures and trace fossils (Spurenfossilien) 79
3.241.42 Flow-structures (Convolute lamination, slumping
and others) 80
3.241.43 Shrinkage cracks, injection structures and sand dikes 82
3.242 The bedding plane 85
3.242.1 Rates of accumulation and formation of sediments 85
3.242.2 Bedding surface marks87
3.242.21 On the upper surface (ripple marks, trace fossils) 87
3.242.22 On planes within the beds (current lineation) 90
3.242.23 On the lower surface (load casts, current-induced casts, trace fossils) 91
3.242.231 Load casts 91
3.242.232 Current-induced casts; turbidity currents 91
3.242.233 Trace fossils98
3.25 Sand bodies 99
3.251 Geometric characteristics 99
3.252 Sand facies and environment 100
3.252.1 Continental environments 100
3.252.11 Dunes 100
3.252.12 Lakes 103
3.252.13 Rivers 103
3.252.14 Glaciofluvial and glacial sediments 107
3.252.15 Red beds 108
3.252.2 Transitional environments 109
3.252.21 Deltas 109
3.252.22 Estuaries 115
3.252.23 Tidal flats 116
3.252.24 Lagoons 118
3.252.25 Marginal seas and Gulfs 118
3.252.26 Beaches 119
3.252.3 Marine environments 121
3.252.31 Shallow sea 121
3.252.32 Deep sea 123
3.26 Sandstone facies and tectonics 124
3.261 Cratonic tectofacies 124
3.262 Orogenic tectofacies125
3.262.1 Géosynclinal facies 125
3.262.2 Leptogeosynclinal facies 125
3.262.3 Flysch facies 127
3.262.4 Molasse facies 128
3.263 Facies maps 129
3.3 Diagenesis 130
3.31 Diagenetic processes in sandstones 130
3.311 Definitions 130
3.312 Mechanical compaction 130
3.313 Dissolution 133
3.314 Neoformation (cementation, in part) 135
3.314.1 Criteria for determining the sequence of precipitation 135
3.314.2 Quartz neoformation 138
3.314.3 Feldspar neoformation 141
3.314.4 Carbonate neoformation 142
3.314.5 Sulphate neoformation 143
3.314.6 Clay mineral neoformation 143
3.314.7 Other neoformations 144
3.315 Replacement and alteration 144
3.32 Examples of diagenetic sequences 146
3.321 Diagenesis of quartz sandstones 147
3.322 Diagenesis of calcareous sandstones 149
3.323 Diagenesis of feldspathic sandstones 149
3.324 Diagenesis of feldspathic, slightly evaporitic sandstones (red beds) 152
3.325 Diagenesis of coal-bearing micaccous sandstones 153
3.33 The transition from diagenesis to metamorphism in sandstones 155
3.4 Porosity, permeability, and oil saturation 158
4. Pyroclastic rocks (H.-U. Schmincke) 160
4.1 Grain size classification 160
4.2 Pyroclastic rocks produced under subaerial conditions 162
4.21 Pyroclastic fall deposits (tephra) 162
4.211 Origin of tephra 162
4.212 Transport and deposition of tephra 163
4.22 Pyroclastic flows 172
4.23 Base surges 177
4.24 Lahars 180
4.25 Volcanic breccias 181
4.26 Peperites (lava-sediment mixtures) 183
4.3 Pyroclastic rocks produced under subaqueous conditions 183
4.31 Hyaloclastites and subaqueous tuffs 183
4.32 Subaqueous pyroclastic flows 184
4.4 Alteration of volcanic glass 186
5. Carbonate Rocks 190
5.1 The primary sediments and their origin 190
5.11 Calcilutites 190
5.12 Clotted limestones 197
5.13 Pelletai limestones 199
5.14 Detrital limestones 201
5.15 Skeletal limestones 206
5.151 Ecologic and mineralogie considerations, and identification key 206
5.152 Calcareous algae and Schizophyta 214
5.153 Nannoplankton 225
5.154 Protozoans 227
5.155 Sponges (Porifera) 232
5.156 Coelenterates 233
5.157 Bryozoa 236
5.158 Brachiopoda 239
5.159 Worms 240
5.1510 Mollusca 241
5.1511 Arthropoda 246
5.1512 Echinodermata 248
5.16 Oolites 250
5.17 Crustose limestones 257
5.18 Biostromes, bioherms and their environment 260
5.181 Nomenclature 260
5.182 Biologic aspects 263
5.183 Modern reefs 265
5.184 Ancient biostromes and bioherms 268
5.2 Nomenclature of carbonate rocks 275
5.3 Diagenesis 279
5.31 Introductory 279
5.32 Isochemical diagenesis 279
5.321 Cementation 281
5.321.1 Cement A and cryptocrystalline cement (micritization) 281
5.321.2 Cement B 288
5.321.3 Chemical aspects 290
5.322 Neomorphism 290
5.322.1 Crystal enlargement 290
5.322.2 Transformation aragonite -> calcite 294
5.323 Stylolites 296
5.324 Cone-in-cone 299
5.325 Concretions 301
5.33 Allochemical diagenesis 303
5.331 Dolomitization 303
5.331.1 The processes 303
5.331.2 Occurrence of dolomite 314
5.331.21 Early diagenetic dolomites 314
5.331.22 Late diagenetic dolomites 318
5.332 Mg-loss 320
5.332.1 Dedolomitization 320
5.332.2 Magnesian calcite -> calcite (incongruent dissolution) 321
5.333 Isotopic composition of carbonate sediments and rocks 324
5.334 Anhydritization, celestitization and other processes 325
5.335 Silicification 327
5.336 Authigenic silicates 333
5.337 Authigenic pyrite 337
5.4 Pore space 338
5.41 Porosity of calcilutites 338
5.42 Porosity of particle limestones and dolomites 340
5.421 Pore types 340
5.422 Examples of depositional porosity 347
5.423 Origin of secondary porosity 348
5.423.1 Secondary porosity in limestones 348
5.423.2 Secondary porosity in dolomites 351
5.5 Environmental indicators 352
5.51 General aspects 352
5.52 Continental environments 353
5.53 Transitional environments 355
5.54 Marine environments 356
6. Cyclic Sedimentation 361
6.1 Definitions and methods 361
6.2 Possible causes 364
6.21 Fluctuations in climate 364
6.22 Large-scale tectonic movements of the ocean bottom 365
6.23 Different subsidence rates of basins 366
6.24 Fluctuations in the rise of the hinterland 366
6.25 Episodic shifting of rivers and deltas 366
6.26 Biological factors 366
6.27 Cycles caused by steady processes 367
6.3 Examples of rhythms and cycles 367
6.31 Deep sea 367
6.32 Shallow sea 369
6.33 Transition land — sea 374
6.34 Lacustrine cycles 379
6.35 Fluvial cycles 380
6.4 Cycles of higher order (megacyclcs) 380
6.41 Symmetrical megacycles 380
6.42 Asymmetrical megacycles 381
References and Authors’ Index . 383
Subject Index 454