Wilhelm Harder:

Anatomy of fishes

2. completely revised and enlarged edition of "Anatomie der Fische"

Transl.: Stephen Sokoloff

1976. XIV, 744 pages, 338 figures, 14 tables, 13 plates, 17x24cm, 2200 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65067-5, paperback, price: 122.00 €

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BibTeX file


IchthyologyanatomyfishfisheryMiddle EuropeFischkundeAnatomieFischFischereiMitteleuropa


Preface top ↑

For this second, considerably enlarged edition, the statements made concerning the previous edition are without reservations still valid. The literature in the field of fish anatomy and morphology has grown enormously since this book first appeard (1964), as can be seen from the much larger bibliography in the present volume. Since this "Fish anatomy", unlike the previous version, does not form a part of the "Handbook of the Inland Fishery of Middle Europe", it was necessary to devote more attention to non-European and marine species, and in addition, our knowledge of the structure of the fish body and its function has greatly increased in the last decade. I could not include all details, not even all those which have been published, since it is inevitable that I have missed some of the literature. Nevertheless I have made an effort to depict all of the information discussed here as correctly as possible. I hope that I have mentioned the majority of the technical terms concerning fish anatomy (but I prefer not to define "majority".

This book cannot replace the special literature, and the specialist in a certain field will certainly find gaps. Books confined to certain aspects, for example those concerning the physiology of the various organs of the fish body, often contain more precise and newer descriptions of morphological, histological and ultrastructural details, but it was not possible to thoroughly review all of these works here. A person who is especially interested in one particular organ system will hardly confine himself to a textbook, which can only encompass more general data. He will in any case consult the special literature and only use the textbook as an introduction to his field of interest. The literature references are by no means complete, and do not pretend to constitute a bibliography of fish anatomy. For technical reasons it was not possible to increase the size of the illustrative volume to the same extend as that of the text volume. Many readers will object to the uneven quality of the drawings. It was, however, impossible to avoid this.

Redoing all of them with the same graphic technique would, at best, have improved them optically, but most likely would have worstened their informative value. To prepare completely new drawings was not possible and would have been much too expensive. When, as is customary, illustrations are shoved between portions of the text, differences in their quality are only less apparent. Placing the illustrations in a separate volume, however, allows the reader to always have those pertaining to the portion of the text being studied in front of him. This has widely been recognised as an advantage by the users of the first edition. It is unfortunately not possible for me to individually thank all those who gave me impotent tips; the list would be too long and nervertheless remain incomplete. I would like to express my special thanks to the publishers, the late Mr. I. Nagele, and his successor, Dr. E. Nagele, for their readiness to considerably enlarge this book and to fulfill my various other wishes and suggestion. I also thank the translator, Mr. Stephen Sokoloff, a graduate biologist, for his painstaking work and self-sacrifice. I hope this book will be as well received as the first edition, and will be of help to a great number of ichthyologists.

Contents top ↑

Classification of Fish 1
The Form of the Fish Body 3
The Planes which Pass through the Body; Designations of Spatial
Relationships between Organs 7
The Structural Elements of the Organs; Cells and Tissues 9
The Cell 9
The Tissues 13
Sensory Epithelia and Sensory Cells 15
Supporting and Connective Tissue 16
Non Calcareous Tissues 18
Calcium-Containing Supporting Tissues 20
Connective Tissues 22
Muscle Tissue 23
Nerve Tissue 25
Blood-, Lymph- and Reproductive Cells 29
The Skeleton 31
Notochord and Vertebral Column 31
Electrical Polarization of Skeletal Elements 35
The Skull 37
Introductory Remarks 37
Origin of the Cranial Bones 38
The Skull and its Components 39
The Neurocranium 39
The Viscerocranium 41
The Cranium; a Constructions-Functional Approach 44
The Suspension of the Jaws 48
Mechanisms for Protrusibility of the Upper Jaw 51
The Pectoral- and Pelvic Girdles 55
The Shoulder- or Pectoral Girdle 56
The Pelvic Girdle 57
The Fins 57
The Unpaired Fins 58
The Adipose Fin 5 9
Structural Modifications of Unpaired Fins 60
The Bilateral and Median Pairs of Fins 61
The Tail-Fin 65
The Dermal Skeleton 67
The Scale-armour 67
The Small Scales 69
The Large Scales 71
The Round-Scales-Morphology 74
The Teleost Round Scale-Formation and Structure 77
Structures Derived from Scales 79
The Teeth 81
Hard Tissues of the Teeth 83
Attachment of Teeth 88
The Pharyngeal Teeth 88
The Masticating-Plate 90
Tooth-Replacement 90
The Musculature 92
The Somatic Musculature 96
Musculature of the Body-Axis 96
Myomere Structure 97
The Muscles of the Unpaired Fins 103
The "Muscle-Bones" 105
The Fraternal Eye-Muscles 105
The Musculature of the Paired Fins 105
The Spinal Gill-Musculature 106
The Visceral Musculature 107
The Muscles of the Mandibular Arch 107
flue Muscles of the Hyoid Arch 108
The Muscles of the Gill-Arches 110
The Cephalic Musculature of the Chondrostei 112
Special Modifications of Muscle Fibers 114
The Muscle Cells and Muscles of Branchiostoma 114
The Electric Organs 114
The Body-Cavity 125
The Digestive Tract 128
The Intestine and its Appendages 128
The Divisions of the Digestive Tract in Detail 130
The Head-Gut 130
The Closure of the Gill-Slits 134
The Foregut 135
The Esophagus 136
The Stomach 138
The Mid-Gut 143
The Epithelium of the Intestine 144
The Structure of the Intestinal Wall 144
The Pattern of Mucous-Membrane Folds 148
The Spiral Intestine 150
The Length and Shape of the Mid-Gut 153
The Pyloric Appendages 155
The Hind-Gut 158
The Large Glands of the Digestive Tract 159
The Liver 159
The Pancreas 162
The Swim Bladder 164
The Weberian Apparatus 180
Sound Producing Organs 187
The Urogenital Organs 192
The Kidney 192
The Gonads; Testicles and Ovaries 202
The Development of the Germinal Cells 208
The Spermatogenesis 210
The Oogenesis 212
Hermaphroditism-Amphisexuality 218
The Cloaca and the Organs of Copulation 221
The Secondary Sex Characters 224
The Circulatory System 226
The Blood 226
The Blood Cells 228
The Structure and Function of the Blood Vessels 231
The System of Blood-Vessels 234
The Heart 235
The Arterial System of the Trunk 241
The Veins of the Trunk and Tail 245
The Blood-Vessels of the Head 248
The Renal Portal-System 251
The Blood Vessels of Warm-Bodied Fish 253
The Lymph Vessels 257
The Superficial Lymph Vessels 258
The Deeper Lymphatic Vessels 259
The Cephalic Lymph Vessels 259
The Visceral Lymph Vessels 260
The Lymph-Heart 261
Lymphomyeloid and Hematopoietic Tissue 262
The Spleen 262
The Endocrine Organs 265
The Pituitary 266
The Saccus Vasculosus 273
The Epiphysis 276
The Urophysis Spinalis 277
The Thyroid Gland 278
The Ultimobranchial Bodies 279
The Thymus 280
The Pseudobranch 281
The Adrenal System 281
The Corpuscles of Stannius 283
The island-Cells of the Pancreas 284
The Digestive Tract as Endocrine Organ 285
The Urogenital Tract 285
The Kidneys 286
The Respiratory Organs 287
Introduction 287
The Gills 287
The External Gills 295
The Pseudobranch, the Opercular Gill, and the Spiracular Gills 296
The Gills in Agnatha 297
The Gills as Excretory and Osmoregulatory Organs 298
Accessory Respiratory Organs 301
Organs of Aquatic Respiration 301
Air-Breathing Organs 302
The Sensory Organs 306
General 306
The Structure of the Sensory Organs 310
The Individual Sensory Organs 312
Free Nerve-Endings, Nerve-Networks and Taste-Buds 312
The Barbs 315
The Lateral Line System 315
The Electroreceptors 320
The Stato-Acoustic Organ (the Organ of Balance and Hearing) 327
The Olfactory Organ 334
The Eye 340
Special Eye Shapes 360
The Nervous System 364
General 364
The Peripheral Nervous System 366
The Animalic Nervous System 366
The Central Nervous System 370
The Spinal Cord 370
The Brain 373
General 373
The Rhombencephalon 375
The Medulla Oblongata 375
The Metencephalon and the Cerebellum 377
The Neural Control of Discharges of the Electric Organs 381
The Mesencephalon 385
The Diencephalon 387
The Telencephalon 390
The Cranial and Branchial Nerves 393
The Sensory Nerves 395
The Branchial Nerves 398
The Somatic Cranial Nerves 402
The Nerves of the External Eye-Muscles 402
The Occipital Nerves 402
The Vegetative and Autonomic Nervous System 403
The Membranes of the Brain and the Spinal Cord (the Meninges) 406
The Flexures of the Brain 407
The Blood Vessels of the Brain 408
Integument of the Body, the Luminescent- and the Poison Organs 410
The Layers of the Skin 410
The Epidermis 410
The Special Epidermal Structures in Fishes 415
The Dermis 419
The Luminescent Organs 424
The Poison-Organs 426
Larval Organs 428
Larval Adhesive Organs 42 8
Larval Hydrostatic Apparatus 432
Tables 433
Bibliography 475
Index 563