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Wolf von Engelhardt:

The origin of sediments and sedimentary rocks

1977. VIII, 359 pages, 134 figures, 57 tables, 18x24cm, 1100 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65077-4, bound, price: 50.00 €

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Keywords

sedimentsedimentary rockpetrologyatmospheredepositSedimentSedimentgesteinPetrologieAtmosphäreAblagerung

Contents

Content Description top ↑

This book is organized in five main chapters which deal with parent materials, weathering, transport and deposition of clastic constituents by waters and wind, the formation of chemical sediments, and diagenesis. It is directed to advanced students of all disciplines of geosciences, and as well to those who work on or carry on research dealing with problems whose solutions depend on the knowledge of how sediments originate and become solid rocks.

Table of Contents top ↑

1. Parent Materials 1
2. Subaerial Weathering 8
2.1 General 8
2.2 Breakclown of primary rocks and minerals into loose materials 9
2.3 Chemical decomposition 16
2.31 General 16
2.32 Solution processes 21
2.33 Formation of new minerals 33
2.331 Oxides and hydrated oxides 33
2.332 Clay minerals39
2.332.1 Classification of clay minerals 39
2.332.2 Alteration of primary layer silicates to clay minerals 41
2.332.3 Neoformation of clay minerals 44
2.4 Soils 46
2.41 General 46
2.42 Factors in soil formation 47
2.43 Soil types 48

3. Transport and Deposition of Clastic Constituents 52
3.1 Transport and deposition in water 52
3.11 General 52
3.12 Laminar and turbulent flow 53
3.13 Transport in suspension (suspended load) 58
3.14 Bottom transport (bed load) 70
3.15 Transport capacity of streams 77
3.16 Marine transport processes 81
3.161 General81
3.162 Transport by ocean currents 81
3.163 Wave transport 82
3.164 Submarine landslides and suspension currents 92
3.17 Changes during transport and deposition 99
3.171 Mechanical effects of water transport 99
3.171.1 General 99
3.171.2 Definition of form and roundness 99
3.171.3 Experiments on the mechanical effects of water transport 103
3.171.4 Observations of the mechanical effects of water transport 109
3.171.5 Summary 113
3.172 Chemical changes during transport and deposition:
subaquatic weathering 114
3.172.1 General 114
3.172.2 Subfluvial weathering 115
3.172.3 Submarine weathering 116
3.18 Deposition in water 124
3.181 Grain size distribution 124
3.182 Streams 129
3.183 Deltas 136
3.184 Sea coasts 137
3.185 Lakes and sea 141
3.2 Transport and deposition in air 145
3.21 General 145
3.22 Transport in suspension (suspended load) 146
3.23 Bottom transport (bed load) 149
3.24 Transport capacity of winds 155
3.25 Mechanical effects of aeolian transport 157
3.26 Deposition in air 158
3.3 Distinguishing aeolian and aquatic clastic sediments 161
3.4 Transport and deposition by ice 164
4. Formation of Chemical Sediments 166
4.1 General 166
4.2 Limestone 168
4.3 Dolomite182
4.4 Gypsum and anhydrite 185
5. Diagenesis 188
5.1 General188
5.2 Pore space in sediments and sedimentary rocks 189
5.21 General 189
5.22 Porosity 189
5.23 Homogeneous flow processes 193
5.24 Heterogeneous flow processes and equilibria in pore space 203
5.3 Formation waters 208
5.31 General 208
5.32 Composition of formation waters 210
5.33 Diagenesis of formation waters 231
5.4 Diagenesis of sands 239
5.41 Mechanical diagenesis 239
5.42 Chemical diagenesis 241
5.5 Diagenesis of clays 262
5.51 Mechanical diagenesis (compaction) 262
5.52 Chemical diagenesis 293
5.6 Diagenesis of carbonates 304
5.61 Mechanical diagenesis 304
5.62 Isochemical diagenesis 306
5.621 General 306
5.622 Exogenic isochemical diagenesis 308
5.623 Endogenic isochemical diagenesis 312
5.624 Stylolites 313
5.625 Transformation of Mg-calcite and aragonite into calcite 315
5.626 Recrystallization of calcite 317
5.63 Allochemical diagenesis 318
5.631 Dolomitization and dedolomitization 318
5.632 Formation of SiO2-concentrations (chert) 324
5.633 Neoformation of silicates 327
References and Authors’ Index 329
Subject Index 353