Guide to Medium-Scale. Geomorphological Mapping

Internaional Geographical Union. Commission on Geomorphological Survey and Mapping. Geomorph. photos, tables and folders

Ed.: Jaromir Demek; Clifford Embleton

1978. 384 pages, 90 p. appendix, 5 col. maps, 17x24cm, 1300 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65085-9, paperback

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Content Description top ↑

At the present time, geomorphological mapping is the main research method of geomorphology. Geomorphological maps are not only of scientific but also of practical significance. Their importance for the further development of geomorphology as a science and its wider practical application is generally recognized. The main problem of geomorphological mapping at present is the standardization of main (basic) types of geomorphological maps. The standardization of geomorphological maps results in a number of problems, such as the standardization of geomorphological terms, the development of geomorphological mapping as a type of information model within the framework of thematic cartography and the involvement of geomorphological mapping in solving environmental problems .

The standardization of geomorphological maps therefore became the main subject of the activities of the IGU Commission on Geomorphological Survey and Mapping founded at the XXIst International Geographical Congress in New Delhi (India) in 1968. On the occasion of the XXIInd International Geographical Congress in Montreal (Canada) the Commission published the Manual of Detailed Geomorphological Mapping dealing with questions of the standardization of detailed geomorphological maps on scales of 1:10,000 up to 1:100,000. The Manual attracted world-wide attention and soon became out of print.

In the period 1972—1975 the IGU Commission on Geomorphological Survey and Mapping continued its activities by the standardization of medium-scale geomorphological maps (1:100,000 up to 1:1 mill.). In this Guide, Commission members — specialists from the USSR, Italy, GDR, CSSR, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland and Britain are submitting complex information on the present-day state of medium-scale geomorphological mapping and instructions for the compilation of such maps and their use in geomorphological research and practice.

In the introductory section of the book, general principles of medium-scale geomorphological mapping and methods used in the compilation of these maps are discussed. Considerable attention is paid to new methods including remote sensing. The core of the book involves questions of the scientific and practical applications of medium-scale geomorphological mapping especially in connection with landscape ecology and the study of renewable and non-renewable natural resources. Special chapters deal with problems of geomorphological regionalization and forecasting.

The IGU Commission on Geomorphological Survey and Mapping believes that this Guide will be accepted by world geomorphologists as favourably as was the Manual of Detailed Geomorphological Mapping; they hope that it will contribute to the standardization of medium-scale geomorphological maps and to the development of geomorphology as a science and its further development.

Contents top ↑

1. General principles of medium-scale geomorphological mapping
(coordinator J. F. Gellert)
1.1 The Earth's surface relief as the subject of geomorphological mapping (J. F. Gellert) 19
1.2 Principles of geomorphological classification (N. V. Bashenina, J. F. Gellert): Pre requisites and bases of geomorphological classification. — Principles of classification. — Classification of large morphostructures. — Classification of morphostructures and the question of scale in cartography. — Geomorphological classification as a basis for the legend of geomorphological maps 20
1.3 Classification of geomorphological maps (N. V. Dumitrashko, E. Scholz): Definition of maps. — Classification according to scale. — Classification according to their content 36
1.4 Medium-scale geomorphological maps for basic and applied
geomorphological research (H. Kugler, J. F. Gellert, N. S. Blagovolin, N. V. Bashenina): Nature and significance of the Earth's relief — aims of basic geomorphological research and mapping. — The nature and function of medium-scale geomorphological maps. — Basic content of medium-scale geomorphological maps. — Generalization in the compilation of medium-scale geomorphological maps 43
2. Geomorphological methods and procedures in geomorphological mapping (coordinator N. V. Bashenina) 55
2.1 Methods of analysis in geomorphological mapping (N. V. Bashenina) 55
2.2 Procedure in geomorphological studies (N. V. Bashenina) 61
2.3 Morphostructural analysis in medium-scale geomorphological mapping (N. V. Bashenina): Construction of morphostructural maps on a topographical base. — Maps of morpho- and tectono-morpho-isohypses. — The "Geomap" technique. — Techniques used in the Laboratory of Geomorphological Mapping/Moscow State University. — Morphostructural analysis of plains 61
2.4 Method of study of correlated deposits (S. P. Gorshkov) 97
2.5 Photointerpretation and remote sensing in medium-scale geomorphological mapping (N. V. Bashenina, A. M. J. Meijerink): Use of space-photographs. — Multispectral photography and scanning. — Radar. — Interpretation of faults and fault systems on space photographs. — Summary. — Example of the analysis of a mountainous area in the USSR from space photographs 99
2.6 Utilization of geophysical data; geophysical work in connection with medium-scale geomorphological mapping (Y. V. Yunakovskaya): The nature and use of geophysical data. — Geophysical investigation in geomorphological mapping 139
3. Application of medium-scale geomorphological mapping to landscape ecology and the utilization of renewable resources (H. Th. Verstappen, H. Leser, H. Kugler, T. V. Zvonkova) 147
3.1 Introduction (H. Th. Verstappen) 147
3.2 Medium-scale geomorphological mapping and landscape ecology (H. Leser, H. Kugler): Landforms and complex natural regions. — Landforms and soils. — Landforms and climate. — Landforms and vegetation. — Landforms and hydrology; the river basin as a geomorphological unit 149
3.3 Medium-scale geomorphological mapping and agricultural land use (H. Kugler): Geomorphological factors in land utilization. — Geomorphological mapping for agricultural purposes — suggested legend 170
3.4 Medium-scale geomorphological mapping in connection with settlement and recreation (H. Leser, H. Kugler): Geomorphology and the planning of settlement. — Applications of medium-scale geomorphological maps in the planning of settlements and recreation 181
3.5 Geomorphological mapping of territories reclaimed after mining (Z. V. Zvonkova) 187
4. Application of medium-scale geomorphological maps in utilization of non-renewable natural resources 191
4.1 Introduction (J. Demek) 191
4.11 Geomorphological mapping in searches for minerals (M. V. Piotrovski) 192
4.12 The principles of geomorphological mapping for universal prospecting (M. V. Piotrovski) 202
4.13 Types of geomorphological paragenesis of mineral deposits, and the principles of their geomorphological mapping (M. V. Piotrovski, A. A. Lukashov) 207
4.14 Geomorphological mapping in the search for minerals in zones of activised platforms and "Schachtelrelief" (M. V. Piotrovski) 212
4.2 Geomorphological mapping in the evaluation of coal and lignite deposits (M. V. Piotrovski) 213
4.3 Geomorphological mapping in prospecting for gas and oil (L. B. Aristarkhova, L. P. Polkanova, A. F. Yakushova, O. K. Leontév, S. A. Lukyanova) 220
4.4 Geomorphological mapping in the search for coastal and marine placers (O. K. Leontév, S. A. Lukyanova) 235
5. Geomorphological regionalization (H. Kugler, T. Czudek, N. S. Blagovolin) 239
5.1 Significance and general principles (H. Kugler, T. Czudek, N. S. Blagovolin) 239
5.2 Geomorphological regions (H. Kugler, T. Czudek, N. S. Blagovolin) 242
5.3 Maps of geomorphological regions (H. Kugler, T. Czudek, N. S. Blagovolin) 248
6. Predictive geomorphological maps (Yu. G. Simonov) 255
6.1 Types of predictive maps (Yu. G. Simonov):
Predictive geomorphological maps of various catastrophic processes. — Predictive geomorphological maps for areas of future economic development/industrial, civil, transport, hydrotechnical, agricultural, récréation, etc. — Predictive geomorphological maps in searches for commercial minerals 255
6.2 Methods used in geomorphological prediction (Yu. G. Simonov) :
Extrapolation. — Method of expert estimation. — Method of morphological division. — Modelling method. — Verification of predictions 272
6.3 Predicting man's impact on the landscape (D. A. St-Onge) 279
7. Procedure in compiling medium-scale geomorphological maps 285
7.1 General characteristics of the procedure in the compilation of medium-scale geomorphological maps (J. Demek) 285
7.2 Geomorphological generalization in the compilation of medium-scale geomorphological maps (J. Demek) 285
7.3 Procedure in compiling a medium-scale geomorphological map by new mapping (J. Demek) 286
7.4 Notes on the outline legend for medium-scale geomorphological maps (J. F. Gellert, E. Scholz): Character of the legend. — The topographical base of medium-scale geomorphological maps. — Main divisions of the legend. — Explanatory texts for medium-scale geomorphological maps 288
7.5 Compilation of medium-scale geomorphological maps under various conditions (J. Demek, C. Embleton, K. A. Kondratéva, M. V. Piotrovski):
The mapping of glacial landforms. — Methods of compiling medium-scale geomorphological maps in permafrost areas. — Mapping in temperate numid regions. — Mapping of semiarid and arid regions. — Mapping of warm humid regions 296
7.6 Examples of mapping of selected phenomena and compilation of maps for various purposes (J. Demek, M. Panizza): Mapping of active neotectonic movements. — Geomorphological stability map 309
8. Conclusion (J. Demek) 313
Bibliography — Index — Authors' addresses 317
Annex: International unified legend for general medium-scale geomorphological maps (1:200,000—1:1 mill.) 40 pages
Legend to the 1:200,000—1:1,000,000 scale geomorphological maps 32 pages
Outline legend to a geomorphological (morphogenetic) map on 1:200,000
(see attached map examples from the GDR) 18 pages