cover

Man's dependence on the earth

The role of the geosciences in the environment

Ed.: Alan A. Archer; Gerd W. Lüttig; Ivan I. Snezhko; ; UNEP Nairobi; UNESCO Paris

1987. XII, 216 pages, 83 figures, 13 colour plates, 17x24cm, 720 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65128-3, bound, price: 35.00 €

in stock and ready to ship

Order form

BibTeX file

Keywords

geoscienceearthenvironmentdependenceGeowissenschaftErdeUmweltAbhängigkeit

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

The purpose of this book is to provide decision-makers and their non-scientific advisers and planners with an insight into the many ways in which man is dependent on the Earth for survival, the consequent need to apply the principles of conservation management to it and the contribution that earth scientists can make towards this end. Being primarily intended for the non-speicalist, the use of technical terms and the jargon of the scientists has been kept to a minimum, but it is hoped that earth scientists unfamiliar with the subject will also benefit.

Table of Contents top ↑

Preface
Introduction
1. Introducing the Earth 1
Basic Facts 2
The Lithosphere 3
The Composition of the Crust 3
Igneous Rocks 5
Sedimentary Rocks 6
Metamorphic Rocks 7
Structure and Distribution of Continental and Oceanic Rocks 7
The Natural Geological Processes 9
The Atmosphere and the Hydrosphere 13
The Biosphere 17
References 18
2. The Natural Systems of the Environment 19
Rock and Water Cycles 20
Major Geochemical Cycles 23
Geophysical Fields 25
Radiation 26
Energy Systems 27
Natural Systems and the Environment 28
References 3o
3. The Pursuit of Geology 31
The Geological Map 32
The Roles of Geophysics 35
The Roles of Geochemistry 38
The Earth Science Laboratories 41
The Conclusion 41
4. Man’s Impact on the Geosphere 43
Population Growth and Development Needs 44
The Impact of Towns 47
Man’s Effects 49
The Impact of the Minerals Industry 50
Impact of Water Use 53
Impact of the Use of Energy 54
The Effect of Chemicals 60
A Synoptic View and the Future 61
References 62
5. Mineral Resources 63
Introduction 64
Consumption and Production 69
Resources and Reserves 71
Accessibility, Lifetime 73
The Geography of Mineral Production 75
Integrated Use of Raw Materials 79
Future Trends 80
References 81
6. Energy Resources 83
Introduction 84
The Non—Renewable Resources 85
The Renewable Resources 88
Fuel Consumption 93
The Resources 94
Resources in Developing Countries 96
Future Strategy 97
Oil and Natural Gas 98
Tar Sands and Bituminous Shale 98
Hard Coal 98
Lignite 99
Peat 99
Uranium 99
Thorium 99
Geothermal Energy 99
Solar Energy 100
Wind Power 100
Water Power 100
Biomass 100
References 10 1
7. Groundwater Resources 103
The Groundwater Regime 104
Groundwater and the Hydrological Cycle 106
Groundwater and its Significance 109
Groundwater Quality 111
The Assessment and Management of Groundwater Resources 113
References 115
8. Soil Resources 117
The Background 118
Some Basic Soil Properties 119
Some Major Soil Types 122
Production of Crops 123
Soil Improvement: Fertility 125
Soil Improvement: Drainage 126
Soil Improvement: Irrigation 128
Soil Deterioration: Erosion 129
Soil Deterioration: Desertifacation 130
Soil Deterioration: Salinization 131
Soil Deterioration: Compaction 131
Urbanization 132
Soil Pollution 133
Conclusions 134
References 134
9. Geochemical Aspects 137
The Geochemical Environment 138
Basic Processes 140
The Carbon Cycle 143
The Nitrogen Cycle 144
The Sulphur Cycle 145
The Free Oxygen Cycle 145
The Phosphorus Cycle 146
The Calcium Cycle 147
Minor Chemical Elements and Toxic Substances 147
Organic Chemicals 15o
Ionizing Radiation 151
Pollution: The Disturbance of Geochemical Balances 152
Acidification 152
References - 154
10. The Use of Underground Space 157
Underground Storage 158
Underground Waste Disposal 159
Radioactive Waste 161
References 167
11. Human Health 169
Introduction 17o
Pathological Effects of Mineral Dusts 175
Analytical Methods 178
Practical Applications of Analytical Methods 183
Regulation 185
Conclusion 184
References 185
12. Geology and Land-Use Planning 187
Some Problems of Land—Use Planning 188
Geological Maps, the Land-Use Planner’s Pre-Requisite 190
What the Land-Use Planner Needs to Know 191
The Role of the Geologist 193
References 199
13. Future Changes, Natural and Man-Made 201
The Minimization of Man’s Adverse Impact 205
Protection Against Natural Disasters 209
Environmental Protection and Land—Use Planning 209
The Role of the United Nations 210
References 211