Gertrud Hauser; Gian Franco De Stefano:

Epigenetic Variants of the Human Skull

1989. IV, 301 pages, 39 figures, 58 tables, 33 plates, 19x27cm, 1050 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65141-2, bound, price: 65.00 €

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Synopsis top ↑

With this atlas on ``Epigenetic Variants of the Human Skull'' Hauser and De Stefano produced a much required reference work on minor cranial variants. These traits were named epigenetic since they may be seen as products of genetically determined growth processes of other tissues (e.g. nerves, vessels and muscles) affecting bone information. Consequently they may undergo modification during ontogeny in the presence of modifying genes or relevant environmental conditions and generally show variable degrees of expression. Many of these variants had already been described mainly as mere skeletal anomalies. Renewed interest resulted when crosses between inbred strains of mice established the potential value of minor skeletal variants in genetic studies. But in the light of the new experiences one may ask if the characters selected were the most useful for their purpose? Are they easy to identify, and are their definitions rigorous and unambigous ? What is known about their embryology and development, their genetic control? Was their categorisation adequate? Are they of any general medical, forensic or surgical relevance? What is the extent of intrapopulation variation in incidence ? How do they vary between populations ? This atlas endeavores to answer such questions and to serve as a reference text. The entry of each of the 84 characters summarises its nomenclature, gross anatomy, function, embryology and growth, genetics, medical relevance, sex differences, symmetry (if the character is bilateral), laterality or side preference, age variation, association with other traits, and methods of scoring (the traditional as well as that now proposed). For some traits new results are given applying the proposed methods to male adult skulls of recorded age and origin as well as the frequencies of the variants investigated by traditional methods in a selection of the populations of the world from the literature.

The high quality photographs and the overlays (in colour) on the five main views of the skull illustrate each character clearly, better than any verbal definition. The collaboration of 13 international scientists specialised in different fields emphasizes the high quality of this book, and its usefulness for many disciplines as Human Biology and related sciences, Human Genetics, Forensic Medicine, Radiology, Surgery etc.

A most extensive bibliography and a synoptical index conclude this reference work which confronts specialists of Human Biology, Anthropology, Medicine, Biology and Genetics with a fascinating problem but is also most useful and comprehensible for students.

Table of Contents top ↑

Embryology 3
Anatomy 4
Genetics 5
Variations within populations 9
Sex differences 9
Age dependence 9
Symmetry 10
Laterality 10
associations 11
Adaptiveness 11
Variation among populations 12
Medical relevance 13
Genetic conditions in which skull growth is affected 14
Scoring and analysis 16
Some statistical considerations 17
A. Facial cavities 19
B. Sutures (shape, persistence), sutural and fontanelle ossicles 19
C. Spines, tubercles, tori 19
D. Notches, depressions, grooves, osseous bridges, foramina, canals 20
E. Miscellaneous 21
Indications to photographs 21
Indications to the methodologies 21
Indications to references in the text and
tables 21
Frontal View 25
Superior View 25
Occipital View 28
Basal View 28
Internal View 30
Mandible 30
Lateral View 30
Frontal view 31
Frontal sinus 31
Orbital opening 34
Nasal cavities 36
Maxillary sinus 38
Metopic suture 41
Supranasal suture 44
Metopic fissure 46
Frontal grooves 48
Supraorbital osseous structures 51
Ethmoidal foramina 58
Trochlear spine 64
Nasal foramina 66
Infraorbital suture 67
Infraorbital foremen 70
Zygomaxillary tubercle 74
Superior and Posterior view 78
Parietal foremen 78
Symmetrical thinness of the parietal bones 83
Sutures of the cranial vault 84
Inca bone 99
Highest nuchal line 104
Retromastoid process 107
Basal view 110
Atlas bridging 110
Occipital foremen 112
Condylar canal (foremen) 114
Condylar facet double 116
Hypoglossal canal 120
Intermediate condylar canal 126
Paracondylar process 128
Jugular foremen bridging 130
Precondylar tubercle 134
Pharyngeal tubercle 136
Pharyngeal foveola 137
Median basilar canal 139
Craniopharyngeal canal 141
Apertures in the tympanic plate 143
Petrosquamous emissaries 148
Retropterygoid apertures in the greater wing 149
Basal spheroid bridges 156
Sella bridges 162
Lesser palatine foramina 163
Palatine bridging 166
Transverse palatine suture 172
Palatine torus 174
Maxillary torus 180
Mandibular torus 182
Lateral view 186
Auditory torus 186
Suprameatal spine and depression 188
Middle meningeal artery emissaries 191
Divided parietal bone 192
Partitioned temporal squama 193
Biasterionic sutures 194
Ossicle at asterion and occipitomastoid wormians 196
Mastoid foremen 201
Squamomastoid suture 206
Parietal notch bone 207
Epipteric bone 210
Fronto-temporal articulation 216
Squamous ossicles 220
Os japonicum 222
Zygomatico-facial foremen 224
Marginal tubercle 226
Mandible 230
Mental foremen 230
Mylohyoid bridge 234
Genial tubercles, median mental spine
and genial pit 236
Accessory apertures in the ramus mandibulae 240