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Klaus Hausmann; Norbert Hülsmann; Renate Radek:

Protistology

2003. 3. edition, IX, 379 pages, 384 figures, 22 tables, 18x25cm, 1190 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65208-2, bound, price: 64.00 €

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Protistology textbook microorganism Einzeller Morphologie

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

This textbook on Protistology provides an excellent information source for a broad audience ranging from students of advanced university courses to senior scientists, for the study of parasitic and/or pathogenic microorganisms; lavishly and unsurpassedly illustrated with about 800 single micrographs, line drawings and diagrams allowing an overwhelming insight into the architectural variety of unicellular creatures and their dynamical properties. The pivotal ecological roles unicellular organisms play in the bionomics of life on earth, at present and in the past as well as the phylogenetic relationships between unicellular and multicellular organisms are thoroughly explained.

Bespr.: Mikrokosmos 1/2004 top ↑

Dass es das noch gibt: gründlich Überarbeitet, umfangreicher, Layout gefälliger - und dennoch ist das Buch billiger als die vorige Ausgabe. Klaus Hausmann und Norbert Hülsmann haben sich mit Renate Radek Verstärkung ins Boot sprich Buch geholt und einen neuen Verlag gefunden - die Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Viele Mikrokosmos-Leser kannten die Protozoology von Hausmann und Hülsmann. Nun ist daraus die Protistology geworden. Nur ein neuer Titel? Nein, der Titel verrät es schon, zahlreiche weitere Taxa, grüne Protisten, sind mit einbezogen worden, die künstliche Beschränkung auf nicht-grüne Protisten wurde aufgegeben. Es ist damit ein Buch für alle, die sich für die Evolution, das System und die Formenvielfalt der Protisten interesieren, für alle die gerne Tümpeln und dabei tiefergehende Informationen über die Vielfalt der gefundenen Einzeller suchen, ein Buch auch für Biolehrer, die ihre Schüler mit einer Wasserprobe in die Vielfalt und Stammesgeschichte des Lebens einführen wollen.

Was konkret bietet die Protistology? Zuerst wird nach einer Besprechung historischer Entwicklungen das System der Eukaryonten dargestellt, so wie es heute begründeter Weise gesehen wird. Immer noch muß man konzedieren, dass dieses System nicht vollständig und endgültig zu beschreiben ist. Die großen Zusammenhänge sind aber inzwischen wohl erkannt. Es war notwendig und ist dennoch lobenswert, dass nicht nur die Protisten aufgeführt werden. Wußten Sie, dass wir Menschen zu den Opithokonten gehören, dass die Choanoflagellaten mit den Mesomycefozoa das Schwestertaxon aller Tiere bilden?

Neben dem systematisch-evolutionsbiologischen Teil liegt der Schwerpunkt des Werkes auf der Behandlung der Biologie und Morphologie der Protisten. Schöne Abbildungen und interessante Details zu ungezählten Arten sind für Amateure wie für Profis eine Fundgrube. Wieder haben sich die Autoren für bestimmte Kapitel Verstärkung geholt. So hat Altmeister Hans Machemer wieder die Reizphysiologie bearbeitet. Maria Mulisch u.a. die Fortpflanzung und Morphogenese überarbeitet. Auch die Ökologie der Protisten ist erfreulich umfangreich dargestellt.

Gibt es offene Wünsche? Die Molekulargenetik der Protisten ist wohl, angesichts der Bedeutung, die sie inzwischen in der Forschung genießt, recht knapp dargestellt. Aber auch dieses Kapitel wurde von Günther Steinbrück aktualisiert und um wichtige neue Erkenntnisse erweitert. Auch mikrobielle Infektionen in Protozoen, mein eigenes Forschungsgebiet, hätte ich mir ausführlicher behandelt gewünscht - vielleicht in der nächsten Auflage.

Dennoch, es ist ein gelungenes, insgesamt ausgewogenes Buch und ich empfehle es allen Protozoologen aber auch Amateur-Mikroskopikern, Biologielehrern, Wasserkundlern und Studierenden. Was kostet der Spaß? Wie schon gesagt, die Protistology mit 379 Seiten, dem gelungenen Umbruch, der viel Liebe zum Detail erkennen läßt, ist billiger als die alle Protozoology. 64 EUR kostet die Normalausgabe. Studierenden sei die Paperback-Ausgabe zu 49 EUR empfohlen.

Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Görtz Universität Stuttgart

Rev.: Acta Protozoologica 43, 2004, pp. 89-90 top ↑

Klaus Hausmann, Norbert Hülsmann and Renate Radek have written a contemporary protistology textbook. This is the completely revised third edition of the book by Hausmann and his co-authors. The success of the recent edition of the Protistology, like the previous editions, derives from its insight into the complexity and beauty of protists.

The book provides an excellent compilation of current branches of knowledge, with contributions from all the main scientists in protist research, giving us to a deeper understanding of protists. The authors have divided their book into three major parts. The first part gives the reader an introduction and overview of definitions, the history of nomenclature and a historical overview of protistological research, concluding with the unique cellular organisation of protists. The second part discusses the context and foundation for understanding evolution and taxonomy, which includes the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes, the development of classification systems and concludes with the proposal of the Protists system. The third part concerns six selected topics of general protistology, namely: comparative morphology and physiology, nuclei and sexual reproduction, morphogenesis, molecular biology, behavior and ecology. The book as a whole ends with a helpful glossary of terms used almost exclusively in protistology, mentioning leading protozoological journals and periodicals, a bibliography comprising about 500 classical references concerning topics dealt with in the book, and an alphabetically arranged subject index.

At the very beginning, the authors pose the question: what are protists or protozoans? And they are not very convinced they can give an answer in the rest of the book, that covers an assemblage of the factual information on protists. In my opinion, the book gives the convincing answer that protists are almost always unicellular eukaryotic organisms, having a lot in common with other higher eukaryotes, but because of their "fantastic diversity". (quoting the authors) are hard to classify in a clear and equal terms. Promising molecular biology techniques applied recently have given results that lead at the moment to complication of the taxonomical relations based on morphological features /characters. It seems a plausible expectation that in due time we shall gain a new understanding and insight into these highly differentiated living creatures, defined for the moment as protists.

On the positive side, this edition deals with the emergence and use of techniques currently driving the development of molecular biology, a subject insufficiently examined in previous editions. Examples of extensive biochemical and genetical analysis have added to our pool of knowledge. This is recognized by the authors and should make this book interesting to read, even for postgraduates. Students will benefit greatly from this clearly presented and illustrated text and from the analysis of the historical development of the subject from its very beginnings. I would chiefly recommend this book to students who are interested in unicellular organisms. An additional strength of the book is undoubtedly in its listing (and illustrations) of many examples of selected topics such as morphology, motility, nutrition, reproduction, molecular biology, behavior and ecology of protists, arranged in a very readable way.

The success of the most recent edition of Protistology, as in previous editions, is derived from a clear layout of text and photographs and drawings that serve to illustrate the book. I got the feeling that the authors are certainly fascinated with protists. A good piece of work and the result is a great read.

Finally, I shall agree with the authors "that protists are amazing, lovely and wonderful creatures which can give pleasure and delight..." not only "just observing them under a microscope..." but by reading about them in Protistology as well.

Dr. Jerzy Sikora
Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warszawa, Poland
Acta Protozoologica 43, 2004, pp. 89-90

Bespr.: Anne Fleury top ↑

La troisième édition de Klaus Hausmann et collaborateurs intitulée " Protistology " est enfin parue... Il était temps. J'ai pour ma part passé en vain des heures à essayer de trouver sur internet la seconde édition (alors intitulée Protozoology), epuisée depuis (trop!) longtemps. Tout comme l'édition précédente, cette nouvelle édition constitue en effet un recueil complet d'informations sur le monde des Protistes parfaitement accessible aux étudiants, aux enseignants et aux chercheurs. Et compte tenu de la diversité et la complexité de ce petit monde, un tel livre est loin d'être superflu, meme pour ceux qui ont la chance de relativement bien connaître un ou plusieurs groupes.

Après une solide introduction sur l'histoire de la protistologie, l'organisation des protistes et les problèmes de taxonomie, les principales caractéristiques des différents groupes sont passées en revue. Enfin, quelques thèmes propres aux protistes sont développés (morphologie et physiologie comparée, noyaux et réproduction sexuelle, morphogenèse, biologie moléculaire, comportement et ecologie).

L'ensemble de l'ouvrage est particulièrement attrayant, tant par l'abondance et la qualité de son illustration, que du texte et agréable à lire. J'ai particulièrement apprecié la manière avec laquelle les auteurs présentent la classification actuelle des protistes (fort complexe) en prenant appuié la fois sur la classification de l'ensemble du vivant, sur l'histoire de la protistologie et sur l'évolution des critères utilisés en phylogenie. Un glossaire judicieusement choisi vient completer les informations du texte principal, dans lequel on trouve une quantité impréssionnante de details surprenants sur les particularités de tel ou tel groupe. Enfin, les auteurs proposent dans leur bibliographie un bon nombre de revues sur les principaux groupes ou thèmes traités. En resumé, j'ai pris beaucoup de plaisir à lire ce livre et à travers lui, à decouvrir une multitude de caractèristiques des protistes. Je pense que cet ouvrage sera d'une très grande utilité à toute personne qui désirerait se familiariser avec le monde des unicéllulaires, et je deplore une fois de plus que ce type d'ouvrage n'existe pas encore en langue française, ce qui permettrait de diffuser plus largement notre passion pour ce monde mysterieux et inventif qui fascine tous ceux qui ont eu l'occasion de l'approcher de près ou de loin.
Anne Fleury
Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire
Université Paris Sud

Rev.: Acta Protozoologica 43, 2004, pp. 199-200 top ↑

Unicellular organisms with the eukaryotic type of cell organization, known today as protists have been at the forefront of biology since their discovery by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek at the end of 17th century. Their seemingly simple cellular organization, possibility of cultivation of many of them in simple media, their wide occurrence in nature made them in the past the classical experimental material of biologists of many demoninations. Even in contemporary biology, preoccupied with molecular, biochemical and developmental aspects of organisms, protists have not lost their standing as key organisms in many areas of biological and medical research. The origin of the eukaryotic cell, the history of its evolution into representatives of todays five generally recognized kingdoms of organisms (Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Animalia and Fungi) is the area where protists play a basic role. The relatively recent discovery by methods of molecular biology of nannosized protists as widely distributed organisms now calls for their morphological characterization, evolutionary and taxonomic affiliation and for the evaluation of their importance in ecosystems. These two examples (and many others could be mentioned) confirm that today protistology is not a mere remnant of its past glory but an integral part of modern biology. Several animal and human diseases caused by protists are still with us in the 21st century (malaria, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, etc), a reality stressing the practical importance of protists.

Although it is evident that protists are organisms deserving study, it is paradoxically difficult to find a textbook on protists which would be modern and comprehensive. Modern informations on protists are scattered throughout specialized publications and journals in many fields of biology. The last textbook before that considered in this review was published nine years ago, a long time if one considers the precoccious development of today s biology. Thus the Protistology by Klaus Hausmann, Norbert Hülsmann and Renate Radek and their colleagues is a very welcomed addition to biological literature. It is in fact the only presently available textbook intended to introduce the reader (be it a student, an advanced scientist or an amateur in the best sense of the word) to the world of protists. Although the present volume is the third edition of a highly succesfull textbook of the past, it is a novelty as it covers not only protozoa dealt with in the preceeding editions ( Protozoologie in 1985 and Protozoology in 1995), but also the single celled representatives of other organismal kingdoms.

The book is organized in three parts: a general part , a core part (evolution and taxonomy of protists) and a third part (selected topics of protistan organization, evolution, morphogenesis, molecular biology, behavior and ecology). A glossary and an extensive list of bibliographical references to journals, textbooks, monographs and important articles on individual protist groups are a much welcomed addition to the book. The general part covers the cellular organization of protists and contains a short but very informative chapter on the historical aspects of protist research and its contribution to biology in general.

When updating the former Protozoology from 1995 and transforming it into the core part of Protistology of 2003, the authors had a not an easy task. Not only it was necessary to include information on many unicellular organisms not previously covered (e.g. green algae, some chromists, fungal protists), but to arrange them into a kind of system which would be user s friendly and phylogeny oriented. For that purpose the authors have selected a consensus tree based on combined protein sequences and thus having chance to reflect true relationships among organisms. The phylogenetically related protistan groups are presented in the book as phyla of a single organismal realm, protista. Thus the division of organisms into traditional kingdoms is avoided, reflecting perhaps the modern thinking that protists, although a polyphyletic assamblage, neverteheless represent a kind of entity by virtue of their size and level of organization. Each phylum is then presented by description of several of its representative organism, accompanied by photomicrographs and schematic drawings.

The third part, Selected Topics of General Protistology is an assamblage of diverse topics as Comparative Morphology and Physiology of Protists , Nuclei and Sexual Reproduction , Morphogenesis and Reproduction , selected molecular biology topics, Behavior of Protists and Ecology of Protists. The main character, permeating the whole book is the illustration material of high quantity and quality consisting of photomicrographs and drawings (many of them by the authors). I consider this as an outstanding paedagogic feature of the book, a feature perhaps reflecting the tradition of German protistology which produced in the past some outstanding and still usable textbooks as e.g. the classical Doflein Reichenow s Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde and the Protozoology (1973) by Karl Grell.

The Protistology documents the intimate knowledge of authors of their subject and undoubtedly their fascination with protists and their structural beauty. Because of this one can criticize only a few items in Protistology . Due to the very rapid progress of biology, some quite recent developments are not included in the book, as e.g. the finding of mitochondrial remnants in microsporidia and in Giardia. Also it is evident from simple enumeration of items of the book section Selected topics of General Protistology that the coverage of some of these items is rather superficial (especially as molecular biology is concerned), as each item could be well the subject of a whole book. On the contrary, the inclusion in this part of the book of the very detailed chapter Behavior of Protists seems superfluous. An important monograph on microsporidia ( The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis ; eds. M. Wittner and L.M. Weiss; ASM Washington, 1999) is not included in the bibliography.

In summary, I consider the Protistology by Hausmann, Hülsmann and Radek as the contemporay best and probably the only available comprehensive introductory book for those interested in the biology of unicellular eukaryotes. It is possible in these days to be a top specialist (but not a connoisseur !) of an organism without actually seeing it under the microscope. However, contrary to such minimalist approach, I believe that a certain amount of organismal knowledge belongs to a scientific culture and the pride of being a scientist. It is fortunate that the Protistology is here, ready to open its pages to anybody interested in the realm of protists.

Jiri Vavra

Acta Protozoologica 43, 2004, pp. 199-200

Bespr.: Lauterbornia 49, S. 32 top ↑

Schlagwörter: Protozoen, Algen, Protisten, Welt, Taxonomie, Phylogenie, Morphologie, Biologie, Physiologie, Verhalten, Ökologie, Lehrbuch Mit der 3. Auflage (1. Auflage 1985) steht das geschätzte Werk wieder zur Verfügung, nun erweitert auf die Gesamtheit aller einzelligen Eucaryota: Protozoen, Algen, niedere Pilze. Entsprechend wurde der Titel von "Protozoology" in "Protistology" geändert. Das Buch wurde in allen Teilen gründlich überarbeitet, sowohl den Text wie die Abbildungen betreffend. Dies gilt vor allem für den 1. Teil, die Spezielle Protistologie, die nahezu die Hälfte des Textes umfasst. Der phylogenetische Ansatz und das schnelle Anwachsen der Kenntnisse auf Grund verfeinerter morphologischer und molekularbiologischer Methoden führte in den letzten Jahren zu immer neuen Entwürfen für ein System der Protisten. Diesbezüglich unterscheidet sich die Neuauflage erheblich von der vorherigen aber auch von dem kürzlich erschienenen "Illustrated guide of the Protozoa" (Lee & al. 2000), wobei an den systematischen Kategorien (Phylum, Zwischenkategorien, Klasse, Ordnung) festgehalten wurde. Der zu Grunde gelegte Stammbaum der Protisten wird aus der Evolution der Eucaryota entwickelt und weist im Übergang zu den Metazoa und den Pflanzen über die Protisten hinaus.

Der 2. Teil des Buchs behandelt in gestraffter Darstellung ausgewählte Themen der allgemeinen Protozoologie: Morphologie der Zelle, Physiologie, sexuelle Vorgänge, Zellteilung und Morphogenese, eine Einführung in die Molekularbiologie der Protisten, Reizverhalten und Ökologie (auf die Bedeutung der Protisten für das Umweltmonitoring wird nicht eingegangen). Eng verzahnt mit dem Text sind die zahlreichen Abbildungen, technisch sehr gut und aussagestark; viele stammen von den Autoren selbst. Es sind Zeichnungen, Fotos und REM-Bilder beispielhafter Arten und morphologischer Details sowie Schemazeichnungen morphologischer und biologischer Sachverhalte.

Der Lehrbuchcharakter zeigt sich in der knappen, auf das Wesentliche beschränkten Darstellung und der klaren Gliederung (nur 3 Ebenen). Hiermit wird ein breiter Leserkreis angesprochen, zu dem Liebhaber, Studenten, Lehrer und alle Biologen zählen, deren Interesse und Aktivitäten sich auf Protisten richten. Praktisch arbeitende Gewässerbiologen, die in erster Linie versuchen, die Einzeller aus den verschiedenen Gruppen soweit möglich auf Artniveau zu identifizieren, erhalten mit dem Werk den notwendigen theoretischen Hintergrund. Zu der überzeugenden und lange bewährten Einführung in die Protozoologie bzw. Protistologie gibt es derzeit keine Alternative. Zusammen mit der sehr guten Ausstattung (Papier, Druck, Bindung) führt dies zu einer uneingeschränkten Empfehlung.

Lauterbornia 49, S. 32

Bespr.: "Naturwissenschaftl. Rundschau", 57. Jg., H. 6, 2004, S. 342 top ↑

Dieses Werk, das einzige Lehrbuch dieser biologischen Teildisziplin auf dem Markt, wurde in der vorliegenden, vollständig überarbeiteten dritten Auflage über die Protozoen hinaus um die einzelligen Algen wie Diatomeen und Chlorophyten und um Pilze wie Oomyceten und Ascomyceten erweitert, sodaß nunmehr alle heterotrophen und phototrophen einzelligen Eukaryoten behandelt werden. Der Inhalt ist in drei Teile gegliedert. Teil 1 enthält vor allem einen Überblick über die Geschichte dieses Fachgebietes und die Grundlagen der Zellorganisation, also eine Allgemeine Cytologie der Protisten. Teil 2 beinhaltet Evolution und Taxonomie. Hier legen die Autoren besonderen Wert auf die Darstellung der Entstehung der gefärbten, komplexen Eukaryoten auf der Grundlage inkorporierter Algenzellen (Endosymbiontentheorie). Es folgen die historische Entwicklung der klassifikatorischen Systeme und eine 136-seitige Systematische Protistologie.

Wer sich eine Zeitlang nicht mit Proti-stensystematik befaßt hat, wird über neue Namen in der Großsystematik erstaunt sein und zu dem Urteil kommen, daß "nichts mehr so sei wie früher". Hier werden die großen Fortschritte bei der Schaffung eines phylogenetischen Systems der letzten Jahre, insbesondere durch molekulare Analysen, besonders deutlich. Sie haben zur Neubewertung zahlreicher Taxa, zu Neuzuordnungen und Umstellungen im System geführt. Man wird dennoch unter den neuen Bezeichnungen wie Tetramastigota, Discicristata, Chromista, Alveolata, Cercozoa und Amoebozoa (gleichgültig ob diese, wie hier, Stämme oder von anderen Autoren Linien, Großgruppen oder Unterreiche genannt werden) seine "alten Bekannten" wiederfinden, wobei auch hier die von verschiedenen Forschern unterschiedlich beurteilte, im Fluß befindliche Hierarchie und die Schreibung nicht verwirren dürfen. Alles wird in den präzisen Diagnosen dieses Kapitels wohlbegründet. Der reichhaltige Inhalt über die Naturgeschichte der abgehandelten Organismen steht für die Verfasser im Vordergrund.

Teil 3 (150 Seiten) stellt die Allgemeine Protistologie dar, die vergleichende Morphologie, die Physiologie und Ökologie, ergänzt durch Kapitel über Verhalten und Molekularbiologie. Wertvolle Bestandteile des Werkes sind ein Glossarium und ein umfangreiches, nach Sachgebieten gegliedertes Literaturverzeichnis.

Ein besonderes Kennzeichen des Buches ist seine außerordentlich reiche Ausstattung mit licht- und elektronenmikroskopischen Abbildungen hoher Qualität, zum großen Teil Originale der Arbeitsgruppe Hausmann. Klare Strichzeichnungen und Diagramme erläutern Baupläne, Entwicklungszyklen, Habitatstrukturen, ökologische Beziehungssysteme, biochemische Abläufe und Verhaltensweisen.

Auch auf kleine Mängel darf hingewiesen werden. Einige Abbildungen sind nicht ausreichend erläutert, z. B. Fig. 133c, d, 145a, b, 206c, 213, 223, 239, 270, 303. Bei den Fig. 106, 111, 115 und 215 fehlt die in diesen Fällen wichtige Orientierung: was in den Abbildungen links ist, ist in natura rechts. Bei einer Anzahl von Abbildungen ist die Quellenangabe unvollständig, auch wünschte man sich Auskunft über den Umfang der zitierten Arbeiten in den Legenden und im Schriftenverzeichnis, also ob diese aus vielleicht nur drei oder (wie in einem Fall) aus 1459 Seiten besteht. Insgesamt bietet das Werk eine glückliche Verknüpfung von bewährtem und neuestem Wissen. Es wird der anschaulichen Unterrichtung von Anfängern und Fortgeschrittenen dienen, Interesse wecken und sich als solides Nachschlagewerk für einen weiten Interessentenkreis aus Zoologie, Parasitologie, Botanik, Allgemeiner Mikrobiologie, Limnologie und Biologischer Meereskunde bewähren. Das Werk ist ein würdiger Nachfolger des seit langem vergriffenen Grell´schen Lehrbuches.

Prof. Dr. Rudolf Röttger, Kiel

"Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau", 57. Jg., H. 6, 2004, S. 342

Rev.: European Journal of Protistology 40 (2004), 255 top ↑

The number of authors has increased proportionally with the editions. Ten years after the first edition of Klaus Hausmann's German Protozoologie which appeared in 1985, the second edition was authored by Klaus Hausmann and Norbert H.ulsmann, with contributions on special aspects of Protozoology by Hans Machemer, Maria Mulisch, and G.unther Steinbr.uck. For the third edition Renate Radek joined as author. Overall, the balanced scope of Protozoology has been maintained in the new edition, which is divided into three parts and 11 chapters, followed by an updated glossary, bibliography, and index. Part I (introduction and overview) contains the chapters definitions and history of nomenclature, historical overview of protistological research, and cellular and molecular organization of protists. Part II (evolution and taxonomy) comprises the core part with the chapters evolution of unicellular eukaryotes, development of classification systems, and system of protists. Part III (selected topics of general protistology) gives an overview on general topics such as comparative morphology and physiology of protists, nuclei and sexual reproduction (M. Mulisch), morphogenesis and reproduction (M. Mulisch), molecular biology (G. Steinbr.uck), behavior of protists (H. Machemer), and ecology of protists.

The major change in the new edition is reflected in the title shift from Protozoology to Protistology, i.e. not only mainly heterotrophic protozoa, but also autotrophic (algae) and saprotrophic (fungi) and thus all groups of unicellular eukaryotes are now treated in this textbook. This results mainly in a revision and expansion of the chapter ``system of protists''. The other chapters were also slightly reworked and updated, containing aspects of the now included taxa, e.g. the attachment devices of parasitic myxozoans, or the gun cell of the oomycete Haptoglossa mirabilis. It is also worth mentioning that the English has been improved. As a consequence, the number of pages and figures has been augmented by approximately 50 each. The authors nonetheless succeeded in keeping the framework of the book in the same order of size, by adopting many new and space-saving arrangements of text and figures. Although the overall reproduction of the figures is good and sometimes improved, there are some cases where the quality declined (e.g. Figs. 107, 114, 302 and 378).

The presented system of protists is based on accumulating evidence from morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular data, such as multi-gene sequence comparisons, which together yield a more and more consistent view of eukaryote phylogeny. Compared to the second edition, the classification appears more straightforward, a clear advantage, especially for teaching purposes. However, some minor inconsistencies appear, such as the use of ``Phylum Tetramastigota'' on page VI, and ``Superphylum Tetramastigota'' on page 45. The inclusion of Haplosporidians in the Alveolata is not consistently handled in the text on page 85 and in Table 11. Further, the classification is inconsistent with respect to the introduction of an infraphylum Metazoa in the subphylum Choanozoa, while a corresponding infraphylum for the superclasses Mesomycetozoa and Choanoflagellata is missing.

In summary, the authors fully succeeded to update the classical Protozoology to a highly topical, well proportioned and very welcome Protistology, to the delight of researchers, and even more to that of the students, who will highly appreciate that, although the scope of the book has been enlarged considerably, the price is significantly lower than that of the second edition.

Martin Schlegel

European Journal of Protistology 40 (2004), 255

Rev.: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51(29), p. 258 top ↑

The third edition of Hausmann's Protozoology is now named Protistology to reflect the revived knowledge that single-celled eukaryotes are a distinct organization type different from multicellular life. Hence, Protozoology has been completely revised to include "all eukaryotic unicellular organisms, regardless of whether they are heterotrophs (protozoa), phototrophs (algae) or saprophytes (fungi), which live as individual organisms embodying a single-celled way of life". Certainly, this is a great challenge embracing 12 phyla with more than 100.000 described species. Can it be mastered by a small team of authors, and is it possible to squeeze the vast protistological knowledge on 379 pages? It is! using a well-balanced combination of concise text and carefully selected figures, the authors produced a textbook usable for both students and professionals and in courses and research. They do not hesitate to put much importance on organismic biology in our molecular time, and have thus included not only modern but also old figures, most notably some of Haeckel's famous, beautiful "Kunstformen" plates. This nice mixture of old-fashioned and modern illustrations gives the book a special charm.

The contents of Protistology includes three main parts, viz., an overview with definitions, history, and basic knowledge of the cellular organization of protists; the second part describes evolution and diversity of protists; and part three contains selected topics, some written by the "contributors", such as comparative morphology and physiology, morphogenesis and reproduction, molecular biology, behaviour, and ecology. A well-prepared glossary, bibliography, and a detailed index close the book.

It is difficult to find drawbacks, considering the efforts of the authors to keep volume and price within reasonable limits. Possibly, some figures would profit from more detailed labels; some plates with colour micrographs would have shown the beauty of protists more impressively; an indication how to cite the book (with or without "contributors") would be helpful; some important literature is lacking (e. g. Röttger's useful book on terms) or a little bit outdated (e. g. Werner's The Biology of al. The Diatoms from 1990); ecologists might complain that their fast-evolving field is not fully represented; and I would not agree that species composition is very similar in the plankton, neuston, and benthos of marine and limnetic habitats".

Some words must be said on the outstanding technical quality of the book: it has an attractive layout, drawings and micrographs are well reproduced, and all is firmly bound together. This is rare in modern times, where drawings are frequently reproduced in asphaltic black, a layout is lacking, the pages become loose if the book is used more than 10 times.

Altogether a beautiful and perfect mixture of old-fashioned and modern protistology which will attract, due to the concise supply of information and excellent illustrative material, not only professionals and colleagues from a variety of disciplines, but also students who will profit from the low price of the paperback edition. Both the authors and the publisher can be congratulated for producing a fine piece of work at an affordable price.

Wilhelm Foissner, Universität Salzburg

Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51(29), p. 258

Review: Freshwater Reviews (2008) 1, p.117 top ↑

This English translation of a well known German work provides an up to date account of the protists. The authors take a broad view of these organisms as including all of the eukaryotic unicells and thus embracing the protozoa, as well as many of the algae and fungi. Although there are plenty of references to the phylogeny of groups within the protists, they are a diverse assemblage and some groups bear little relation to others. Taxonomic arrangement is bound to be a problem but the authors succeed in providing a useful, if brief overview of all of the protists, drawing upon particular examples in each for illustration. There is a good historical introduction providing a background to the confusing classification systems that have developed since the 19th century based first upon comparative morphology and later upon advances in biochemistry. About half of the text is devoted to the evolution and taxonomy of the protists and is lavishly illustrated. The quality of the numerous black and white photographs is excellent and tribute must be paid to the painstaking work the authors must have undertaken to assemble them. Labelling is generally good, but the descriptions appear before the figure letterings which takes time to get used to. However the figures are cited in the text in bold, a useful feature when one needs to refer back to the text from the figure. The remaining text is devoted to comparative morphology of the protists, nuclei and reproduction, behaviour and ecology. These are also well illustrated and include some of the pioneering work on protist ecology undertaken in the Lake District by the FBA.

Although heartily recommended to anyone with an interest in the protists, there were some irritating features. For example, on page 8 we learn that the chalk cliffs are composed ‘mostly of diatoms’ – this is incorrect, they are formed of the remains of coccolithophorids. Elsewhere, there are sentences or words which make no sense and on page 140, the term ‘nutrient less’ appears where ‘oligotrophic’ is presumably what is meant. Some of the errors no doubt occurred in the translation into English, which by the way is ‘American’ in spelling. Fortunately these errors are infrequent enough to occasion only minor annoyance. Although I would have liked to have learned more on some features of the protists, such as their flagellar locomotions and the symbioses, taken as a whole, I enjoyed this book, learned much, and would be happy to accommodate it into my diminishing bookshelf space.

Allan Pentecost

Freshwater Reviews (2008) 1, p. 117

Freshwater Biological Association 2008

Freshwater Reviews

Review: Folia Parasitologica 51: 77–78, 2004 top ↑

There have been only a few protozoological textbooks which were good enough to enjoy repeated editions – e.g., the classical Doflein-Reichenow voluminous and comprehensive textbook (6 editions), Kudo’s textbook (6 editions) and Grell’s monograph (3 editions). This elite club has been now entered by Protistology of Klaus Hausmann and two other illustrious German protozoologists from the Free University of Berlin, with three other chapter contributors. The first 1985 German edition “Protozoologie” written by K. Hausmann was followed by the English edition of “Protozoology” (1996) coauthored with Norbert Hülsmann. The present edition prepared with Renate Radek as the third co-author reflects the enormous progress achieved in the research of single-celled organisms in the recent years and thus had to be revised to a large extent.

The greatest change is that the book deals with all eukaryotic unicellular organisms, i.e., in addition to “true” protozoa also with all other with basically protistan level of organisation, thus also encompassing those which have been conventionally assigned to protophytes or fungi. That is why the title has been changed to “Protistology”. Accordingly, the number of organisms included has consid erably increased, necessitat- ing some economical measures in the size of illustrations and layout of the book. This did not affect at all, however, the aesthetically pleasing look of the book, edited with great care.

The book is clearly organised in several parts. The first part is the “Introduction and overview ”, offering history of nomen- clature and protistological research — this is a very useful text, dealing with facts hardly to be found anywhere else — and describing the cell organisation of protists. The second part is on “Evolution and taxonomy”: it deals with the origin of eukaryotic cell and explains , among other things, primary, secondary and tertiary endosymbioses. The gradual development of classification systems is briefly outlined and some of the recent, sometimes controversial systems of protists are introduced. This part then con tinues with systematic treatment of all protistan groups. The third part deals with topics of general protistology. While chapters on general protistology topics have been revised only to some extent, the taxonomic part was razed to the ground compared to the previous edition. The authors obviously took into account several recent classifications including those of Cavalier-Smith , but at variance with this author they no more recognise Protozoa as a separate kingdom, stressing that Protozoa do not represent an evolutionary lineage in the phylogenetic sense. The authors do not accept the existence of separate eukaryotic kingdoms; they subdivide the only empire Eukaryota into 12 phyla, to which they add eukaryotes incertae sedis like Acantharea, Heliozoa and Paramyxea. At the same level of phylum are e.g., Tetramastigota, Foraminifera and Opisthoconta, the latter including the subphyla Fungi and Choanozoa; the subphylum Choanozoa contains the infraphylum Metazoa. The viewpoint which led the authors to use their very unorthodox, very novel high-level classification is evidently based on phylogenetic relationships as indicated by molecular analysis. They do not offer, however, a detailed explanation of guidelines on which their system has been constructed. They follow to a great extent the phylogram of eukaryotes published by Baldauf et al. in Science (2002), which in the book precedes the taxonomic part. Following the new “protistan” conception of the book, it may now quite naturally embrace groups like diatoms, hypochytriomycotes, oomycetes (which feature Saprolegnia or Phytophthora infestans), red algae, algae belonging to green plants (in this group finds now its place the curious organism Helicosporidium parasiticum), fungal groups such as Microspora and also Ascomycota with Pneumocystis carinii and Candida. The relatively new, phylogenetically important group Ichthyosporea (here listed as Mesomycetozoa) with Dermocystidium and Psorospermium has been assigned to the subphylum Choanozoa. Myxozoa, assigned to metazoan infraphylum, are traditionally kept among protists, although as a whole they clearly exceed the protistan level. In each of the protistan groups , its characteristics is followed by a detailed account of morphology and life cycles and for some groups, phylograms are presented. The clearness of presentation is facilitated by a choice of perfect line drawings and light and electron micrographs; this is what makes the book a desirable item for the library of every biologist. In each group there is a short list of names of representative genera; compared with the previous edition, more emphasis is placed on parasitic organisms. Only so me of the important genera or species, like Trichomonas , Plasmodium , Toxoplasma gondii , Candida albicans and the like, are dealt with in more detail. The third part presents “Selected topics of general protistology”. The first of them is “Comparative morphology and physiology of protists”. This is a marvellous account of special cell organelles and thei r function in protists; it shows the amazing diversity of structures developed to cope with a variety of problems which the unicells meet in their life. Biochemistry is not paid special attention to except for the mechanism of ciliary movement, digestion cycle of Paramecium and energy metabolism of amitochondriate protistan parasites. This falls in line with the prevailing taxonomical and morphological orientation of the book. The chapters “Nuclei and sexual reproduction” (contributed by Maria Mulisch) and “Morphogenesis and reproduction” (M. Mulisch), also accompanied by fine illustrations, explain the basic facts and also intimate how much there is still to be done in these fields of research. “Molecular biology” (contributed by Günther Steinbrück) presents a choice of basic problems such as e.g., editing, surface glycoproteins and telomeres in ciliates. In the new edition it has been extended to comprise a sequence on protistan proteomics mentioning the array of newly discov- ered tubulin families. “Behaviour of protists” (contributed by Hans Machemer) may be of interest for animal physiologists, too. “Ecology of protists” also includes a well-written part on protists as symbionts.

The book is concluded by a glossary of protistological terms, by a very helpful bibliography of essential books and publications, also including the list of important protistological journals. Considering the large scope of the book, there are just a few inaccuracies or omissions ; e.g., Ichthyosporea Cavalier-Smith, 1998 has priority over Mesomycetozoa Herr et al., 1999; Buddenbrockia, the ancestral form of Myxozoa is not mentioned; the myxosporean Sphaerosoma should read Sphaerospora ( Sphaerosoma is both an ichthyosporean and a beetle); there is no valid species Trichodina cyprinis ; Blastocystis is not listed in the book; the relation of Cryptosporidium to gregarines, as revealed by molecular analysis, is not pointed out; Sarcocystis equicanis is the junior synonym of S. bertrami , and S. ovifelis is the junior synonym of S. gigantea ; while Haplospora is quoted as subphylum on p. 124, it is mentioned as phylum on p. 127; rosette agent has been now given a name, Sphaerothecum destruens. The effort to keep the volume within a reasonable size precludes the possibility of presenting descriptions of a large number of genera and species. However, people interested in particular groups or problems will easily find references for further study in the bibliography at the end. This volume presents a modern treatment of a large assemblage of organisms, which is now in the course of being reshaped and attracts increased interest. The book is written in a way which may stimulate people to engage in the study of protists. As it deals with basal facts at an up-to-date level, it is a beneficial reading for those interested both in free-living and in parasitic protists. It may be recommended as an invaluable source of information for protozoologists, parasitologists, biologists and biology students, and also for those loving beautiful forms of nature.

Jiří Lom

Table of contents top ↑

From the Preface to the Second Edition VIII
Preface to the Third Edition IX
Part I Introduction and Overview
Definitions and History of Nomenclature 1
Historical Overview of Protistological Research 4
Cellular Organization of Protists 13
Membranes and Compartments 13
Microfilaments and Microtubules 22
Shape and Size of Protists 27
Part II Evolution and Taxonomy
Evolution of Unicellular Prokaryotes and
Eukaryotes 30
Development of Classification Systems 36
System of Protists 44
(for details see pages VI + VII)
Part III Selected Topics of General Protistology
Comparative Morphology and Physiology of Protists 180
Skeletal Elements 180
Holdfast Organelles 185
Extrusomes 187
Penetration Apparatuses 196
Contractile Vacuoles 197
Motility 205
Ingestion, Digestion, and Defecation 222
Nuclei and Sexual Reproduction 241
Structure and Function of Nuclei 241
Roles of Micronucleus and Macronucleus in the Life Cycle of Ciliates 243
The Nucleus during the Cell Cycle 243
Morphogenesis and Reproduction 256
Facultative Changes in
Cellular Morphology 256
Cyclical Changes in Morphology 259
Cell Division 262
Pattern Formation in Ciliates 266
Molecular Biology 272
Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) of Trypanosomes 272
Kinetoplast DNA Networks and RNA Editing 274
Molecular Peculiarities of Ciliates 276
Molecular Immune Escape of Malaria Parasites 281
Genome Projects in Protists: from Genomics to Proteomics 282
Behavior of Protists 284
Definition of Terms 285
Habituation and Related Time-dependent Phenomena 286
Behavioral Responses 286
Ecology of Protists 296
Factors Influencing
Distribution 296
Aquatic Biocoenoses and Habitats 307
Terrestrial Biocoenoses and Habitats 312
Symbiosis and Parasitism 313
Biodiversity and Biogeography of Protists 323
Closing Remarks 328
Glossary 330
Bibliography 342
Index 355

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This textbook in its imaginative and contemporary third edition covers the whole spectrum of protists from heterotrophic to phototrophic organisms. It gives a broad overview of eukaryotic diversity with a thoroughly comparative approach and focuses on cell biological as well as on molecular biological, physiological and behavioral aspects.