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Peter Leins; Claudia Erbar:

Flower and Fruit

Morphology, Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Function and Ecology

2010. IX, 439 pages, 258 figures, 3 tables, 17x24cm, 1180 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65261-7, bound, price: 69.00 €

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Keywords

flower flower ecology insect ecology fruit fruition flower evolution blütefrucht

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

„Flower and Fruit“ describes the fascinating role that flowers and fruits play in the evolution of plants. It represents an updated translation of the second edition of the successful standard textbook „Blüte und Frucht“ (2nd completely revised edition, 2008) by the same authors.

The origin of flowers and their important role in the life cycle of plants are described accompanied by an explanation of basic terms. The genetic approach to floral organ determination is introduced. On the basis of ontogeny, a morphological analysis of the manifold flower structures follows, laying the foundation for exploring further phylogenetic and diverse functional and ecological questions: the hermaphroditism problem, pollination optimization, pollen tube competition, adaptations to the pollinators, seed dispersal patterns, modes of diaspore dispersal and adaptations of plants and their diaspores to the dispersing agents. A very useful fruit classification is included in the book. A comprehensive appendix containing more than 400 floral formulas serves as reference for placing the mentioned taxa in a classification of flowering plants.

This book addresses plant scientists, students, lecturers and teachers as well as readers interested in botany, plant reproduction, biodiversity and evolution.

Review: Plant Ecology and Evolution 144 (1) top ↑

Whoever deals with investigation of flowers, had at his or her disposal the excellent book of Peter Leins (2000): Blüte und Frucht, Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte, Phylogenie, Funktion, Ökologie (390 pp.), of which a second edition appeared in 2008 (Peter Leins and Claudia Erbar: Blüte und Frucht: Aspekte der Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte, Phylogenie, Funktion und Ökologie). Recently, this book appeared also in an English version: Peter Leins & Claudia Erbar (2010): Flower and Fruit (439 pp.).

Where the German book was already a splendid and most useful source of morphological-ontogenetic information at inflorescence and floral level, pollination biology and flower/ fruit ecology, the English version of it is even better. To illustrate the abundance of the content, this book covers early angiosperm flowers, genetic approach to floral organ determination, differential growth and organ delimitation, number and arrangement of floral organs, floral symmetry, the perianth, the androecium, the gynoecium, the floral axis, nectaries, inflorescences, flower function, flowers and pollinators, seed maturity, and seed dispersal.

All this is presented in a language as simple as possible, and clear explanations about most aspects of inflorescence and flower morphology and biology are given. The book is richly illustrated with photographs and diagrams. Most figures are composed of S.E. micrographs from the own research of the authors. The lay-out is sober, which keeps the attention of the reader on the content. This content is based on the German morphological school, starting with Goethe, elaborated by Troll and modernised by Weberling. Peter Leins and Claudia Erbar succesfully adapted the German morphological tradition to the most recent achievements in floral evolutionary and developmental biology as well as (molecular) phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, this book offers clear, functional and unambiguous definitions and explanations of difficult concepts varying from ‘obdiplostemony’ over ‘stamen- corolla tube’ to ‘day-active-lepidopteran blossoms’. But also basic concepts are treated and sometimes, where terminological confusion exists, comparisons are made with the Anglosaxon interpretations. Therefore, this English edition is very useful for both students and researchers.

In comparison with the original text in German, the layout has been refreshed, the chapter about the evolutionary developmental backgrounds of floral development has been extended, the systematic part has been adapted to APG III (2009), and many existing figures have been improved (e.g. with colour print). New figures as well as a glossary have been added. In short, this book should be present in the library of every research group investigating flowers, and it can be warmly recommended to everybody who wants to understand flowers.

Alexander Vrijdaghs
Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Institute of Botany and Microbiology, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Plant Ecology and Evolution 144 (1)

Bespr.: Hoppea 71 (2010) top ↑

Dieses Buch ist die englischsprachige Ausgabe zur zweiten Auflage (2008) von „Blüte und Frucht“; vgl. dazu die Besprechung in Hoppea 70 (2009). Die englische Übersetzung enthält alle Neuerungen und Verbesserungen der deutschen Neuauflage. Zu den Vorzügen dieses reich illustrierten Lehrbuchs sei daher im Wesentlichen auf die Besprechung der deutschen Ausgabe verwiesen.

Der Inhalt gliedert sich nach einem einleitenden Teil in die gleichen Kapitel und Unterkapitel wie in der deutschen Ausgabe. Ebenso wie bei dieser ist als ein gewisser Mangel festzustellen, dass das Inhaltsverzeichnis und damit auch die Kapitelüberschriften nicht nummeriert sind, so dass die hierarchische Ordnung der Themen nur schwer zu erkennen ist. Alle wichtigen Aspekte von Blüte und Frucht der Bedecktsamigen Pflanzen werden abgehandelt. Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte, Funktion und Ökologie der Blüten und Früchte werden detailliert dargestellt und die einzelnen Themen miteinander in Beziehung gesetzt. Die zahlreichen Schwarzweiß-Abbildungen, darunter viele Fotos mittels Rasterelektronen- und Lichtmikroskop sowie normale Makrofotos, wurden weitgehend aus der deutschen Ausgabe übernommen, ebenso die Farbfotos von Blüten, bei denen es um ihre Schauwirkung geht. Die Literaturzitate wurden auch in der englischen Ausgabe statt im laufenden Text an den Schluss der Kapitel gesetzt. Der Nachteil, dass dadurch die Suche nach weiterführenden Quellen bei den einzelnen Themen erschwert wird, wurde in Kauf genommen, um den laufenden Text nicht durch Literaturangaben zu unterbrechen.

Von den kleineren Fehlern wurde ein Teil korrigiert, z.B. heißt es jetzt auf S. 13 korrekt „Rumex acetosa“; unter Fig. 246 steht aber weiterhin „Dipsacus sylvestris“ statt Dipsacus fullonum. Dass im Buch von „flowering plants“ (als Begriff für die Angiospermae) die Rede ist, ist in der englischen Fassung natürlich nicht zu beanstanden. Eine Weiterentwicklung gegenüber der deutschen Ausgabe ist das (vor dem Gesamtliteraturverzeichnis und dem Register) neu aufgenommene „Glossary“, in dem zahlreiche Fachbegriffe aus dem Themenkomplex „flower and fruit“ erklärt werden. Außerdem wurden einige Details neueren Erkenntnissen angepasst, insbesondere folgt der systematische Anhang gemäß der „Angiosperm Phylogeny Group“ der Klassifikation nicht mehr nach APG II (2003, aktualisiert 2007), sondern jetzt nach APG III (2009). – Die Übertragung des Lehrbuchs ins Englische wird sicher zu einer deutlichen Verbreitung des gelungenen Werks über den deutschsprachigen Raum hinaus beitragen.

Hoppea 71 (2010), Seite 354-355

Review: Frontiers of Biogeography vol. 2 n° 4 March 2011 (Link) top ↑

To view the review please go to the following link:
Frontiers of Biogeography vol. 2 n° 4

Review: Nova Hedwigia Vol. 92, Issue 3-4 top ↑

After two editions in German language (2000, 2008) now, in a short time, the urgently needed English version of this very essential botanical textbook was published by Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung & Gebr. Borntraeger in Stuttgart. "Flower and Fruit" represents an updated translation of the second edition of this successful standard textbook "Blüte und Frucht" (2nd completely revised edition, 2008) by the same authors.

As indicated on the last cover page, "Flower and Fruit" describes the fascinating role that flowers and fruits play in the evolution of plants. The origin of flowers and their important role in the life cycle of plants are described accompanied by an explanation of basic terms. The genetic approach to floral organ determination is introduced. On the basis of ontogeny, a morphological analysis of the manifold flower structures follows, laying the foundation for exploring further phylogenetic and diverse functional and ecological questions: the hermaphroditism problem, pollination optimization, pollen tube competition, adaptations to the pollinators, seed dispersal patterns, modes of diaspore dispersal and adaptations of plants and their diaspores to the dispersing agents. A very useful fruit classification is included in the book. A comprehensive appendix containing more than 400 floral formulas serves as reference for placing the mentioned taxa in a classification of flowering plants.

The contents are in detail:

Beforehand some thoughts on the origin and the important role of the flowers in the life cycle of plants

Short description of an angiosperm flower – some basic terms

The genetic approach to the floral organ determination – from the A-B-C model to the A-B-C-D-E model

Differential growth and organ delimination

Number and arrangement of floral organs in the flowers

Floral symmetry, The perianth, The androecium, The gynoecium, The floral axis, Nectaries, Floral diagrams, Inflorescences

Important flower functions and the relevant adaptations

The flowers and their pollinators – co-adaptations

The flower in the state of seed maturity

Patterns of seed dispersal

Modes of diaspore dispersal and adaptations of the plants and their diaspores to the dispersing agents

Appendix: A classification of the flowering plants as reference for placing the taxa mentioned in the text

Glossary, References (a selection), Index

As I wrote in a review of the second German edition, this it is true also for the new English edition: There is no comparable presentation of this item in botanical literature.

This book addresses to plant scientists, students, lecturers and teachers as well as readers interested in botany, plant reproduction, biodiversity and evolution. The book is of world-wide importance and this English edition is extremely appreciated. Every general botanist, specialist, and every library should have this book.

W.FREY, Berlin

Nova Hedwigia Vol. 92, Issue 3-4

Review: TAXON 60 (3) top ↑

The untimely death of Michel Guédès (30 Oct. 1942–29 Nov. 1985; see G.G. Aymonin, Taxon 36: 699–700), a floral morphologist with whom I had co-authored, and who was a few months younger than me, was an early reminder of one’s mortality. In Taxon 23: 398–401 Guédès published a review of Rolf Sattler’s Organogenesis of flowers: A photographic text-atlas (1973, xxvi, 207 pp.) that he entitled “The new Payer.” Guédès devoted over half of his review to a pithy history of French and German contributions to floral morphology. Pivotal were those of Jean-Baptiste Payer (1818–60)— another untimely death! —via his monumental Traité d’organogénie comparée de la fleur ( Paris, 2 vols. 1857, 1966 facsimile 1-vol. reprint by J. Cramer, Lehre, [4], viii, 748 pp. [Texte], viii pp., 154 pls. [Atlas], series: Historiae naturalis classica, vol. 47).

Leins & Erbar (2010) have a pictorial dedication “to the great French flower morphologist Jean-Baptiste Payer 1818–1860,” but seem not to discuss Payer in their text to place him into proper modern perspective. A reprinting of Guédès’s (1974) historical overview would have done the job. I am, of course, obliged to Guédès for the modified title of the present review.

All three aforecited books are heavily developmental. However, because Leins & Erbar emphasize so much more, I not only amended Guédès’s title but also amplified it to refer to A.J. Eames’s Morphology of the angiosperms (1961, xiii, 518 pp.) and Focko Weberling’s Morphology of flowers and inflorescences (1989, xx, 405 pp., a translation of the 1981 German edition, Morphologie der Blüten und der Blütenstände, 391 p p.; for brief review see R. Schmid, Taxon 40: 160; see also Taxon 42: 311).

A common thread connecting Payer (1857), Sattler (1973), and Leins & Erbar (2010) is the description and profuse illustration of the floral ontogeny of numerous taxa: (1) Payer describes many genera and well over 100 families, using, fide Guédès, “154 tightly packed, magnificent plates lithographed from his own and A. Faguet’s drawings”; (2) Sattler describes 39 genera in 36 families of dicotyledons and 11 genera in 8 families of monocotyledons, using some 1200 photos; (3) Leins & Erbar describe many t axa, using 258 multi-component figures. (4) Moreover, Payer has B&W drawings based on light microscopy, whereas Sattler has B&W photos based on the same. (5) In contrast, Leins & Erbar have color and B&W artwork based on light and especially scanning electron microscopy.

Payer and Sattler are atlases of floral development for plant families, whereas Leins & Erbar are an atlas of floral and fruit morphology and ontogeny interpreted from a phylogenetic, functional, and ecological standpoint (I echo the titular and subtitular words!). This is a dynamic and very interesting approach that wisely avoids truncating events at fertilization, the “official” divider between flower and fruit. The inflorescence, flower, and pollination get 249 pages (sections 1–15 below), whereas the fruit, seed, and diaspore dispersal get 78 pages (sections 16–18 below). This is appropriate coverage. Leins & Erbar also wisely avoid the minutia of palynology and embryology (a heavy emphasis of Eames, 1961), subdisciplines of morphology that only would require space for coverage and yet yield few benefits in reliable functional and ecological interpretation.

Leins & Erbar’s text is divided into 18 unnumbered sections that would have been better numbered for convenient cross-reference. I quote (sans quote marks) these 18 sectional headings and indicate their length to illustrate the richness and depth of treatment: (1) beforehand some thoughts on the origin and the important role of the flowers in the life cycle of plants (8 pages); (2) short description of an angiosperm flower—some basic terms (1 page); (3) the genetic approach to the floral organ determination—from the A-B-C model to the A-B-C-D-E model (5 pages); (4) differential growth and organ delimitation (4 pages); (5) number and arrangement of floral organs in the flowers (19 pages); (6) floral symmetry (2 pages); (7) the perianth (12 pages); (8) the androecium (28 pages); (9) the gynoecium (21 pages); (10) the floral axis (13 pages); (11) nectaries (13 pages); (12) floral diagrams (4 pages); (13) inflorescences (5 pages); (14) important flower functions and the relevant adaptations (45 pages); (15) the flowers and their pollinators—coadaptations (69 pages); (16) the flower in the state of seed maturity (20 pages); (17) patterns of seed dispersal (7 pages); (18) modes of diaspore dispersal and adaptations of the plants and their diaspores to the dispersing agents (51 pages).

Chapters 5, 8, 9–11, 14–16, and 18 are especially noteworthy. The 53-page appendix is a classification of angiosperms following APG III (2009; see Taxon 59: 1633) and complete with over 400 space-saving floral formulae. The 18-page unillustrated glossary is thorough and includes many terms likely to be unfamiliar to non- Europeans; citation of appropriate figures to illustrate the terms in the glossary would have been helpful. The glossary, new to this edition, is an essential addition due to the plethora of terms used; American students, I know from experience, rebel against even basic botanical terminology, although many students are “pre-med,” an area with a real terminological plethora daunting even to this reviewer. A comprehensive 16-page bibliography and 25-page index conclude.

Leins & Erbar’s 2010 book, I should emphasize, is a translation, update, and enhancement of their 2008 second German edition. I commend the authors for making their exemplary 2008 work more accessible via a translation, which is mostly fluid. My university library lacks the 2008 edition. Hence I quote from Alexander Vrijdaghs’s excellent review in Pl. Ecol. Evol. 144: 119, comparing the German and English editions: “… the layout has been refreshed, the chapter about the evolutionary developmental backgrounds of floral development has been extended, the systematic part has been adapted to APG III (2009), and many existing figures have been improved (e.g. with colour print). New figures as well as a glossary have been added.” Moreover, to improve “readability,” references are ganged at the ends of sections rather than being scattered throughout the text (Leins & Erbar, p. v).

In summary, this is a significant work placing the reproductive morphology of angiosperms into a modern phylogenetic, functional, and ecological context. This book is an essential reference for research libraries and for all persons interested in flowers and fruits.

Rudolf Schmid, TAXON 60 (3), page 935-936, June 2011 (by permission)

Bespr.: Botanichesky Zhurnal TOM 96 No. 5, 2011 top ↑

Эта книга – авторский английский перевод учебника, вышедшего на немецком языке уже в двух изданиях (2000 и 2008). Английское издание существенно переработано по сравнению с последним немецким изданием. Работы авторов учебника – Peter Leins и Claudia Erbar – это целая эпоха в изучении репродуктивных органов и репродуктивной биологии цветковых растений. Во многом именно благодаря их исследованиям традиции классической немецкой морфологии растений сохранились и получили широкое развитие в современной науке. Они были в числе первых ботаников, которые начали изучать морфогенез цветка с помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа и выполнили классические работы в этой области, они же были в числе первых исследователей, выявивших корреляции между молекулярно-филогенетическими данными и данными по морфологии цветка (особенно в работах по морфогенезу спайнолепестного венчика у высших двудольных). Первые работы Peter Leins, в том числе посвященные развитию многотычинковых андроцеев и морфогенезу цветка вересковых, выполнены еще до эры электронной микроскопии. Классики такого масштаба могут позволить себе написать учебник по широкой научной проблеме, иллюстрируя его преимущественно на примерах своих работ или работ своих учеников. Именно так и построен учебник, о котором идет речь. Он очень богато иллюстрирован: многие из 258 иллюстраций – это черно-белые и цветные фотографии, из-за которых чтение книги доставляет большое эстетическое наслаждение. Клаудия Эрбар и Петер Ляйнс – профессора Гейдельбергского университета. При чтении учебника чувствуется, какой огромный опыт преподавания у его авторов. Книга составлена исключительно дидактично и позволит познакомиться с предметом начинающим ботаникам. При этом факт выхода английского перевода этой книги трудно переоценить, поскольку знание немецкого языка, к большому сожалению, становится все более редким среди ботаников. В учебнике воспроизведено много результатов, опубликованных ранее авторами лишь в статьях на немецком языке. Хочется верить, что английский перевод учебника Ляйнса и Эрбар будет воспринят научным сообществом с таким же большим интересом, с каким много лет назад был встречен выход английского перевода монографии еще одного классика немецкой морфологии, ученика В. Тролля Фоко Веберлинга по морфологии цветков и соцветий (Weberling F. 1989. Morphology of flowers and inflorescences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). При всем сходстве названий двух книг, они ни в коем случае не могут рассматриваться как «конкурирующие», поскольку даже разделы по морфологии цветка в них составлены – и иллюстрированы – по-разному.

Книга написана достаточно увлекательно и с чувством юмора. Так, начиная обсуждение одного из самых сложных и неоднозначных вопросов (о природе стенки нижней завязи), авторы рекомендуют читателям подойти к его пониманию, будучи совершенно расслабленными. На рисунке, где изображена конкуренция между пыльцевыми трубками, около «победившей» трубки изображен человечек с флажком. На одной из микрографий, иллюстрирующих механизм опыления Goodeniaceae, к столбику пририсованы кружочки, делающие его похожим на человечка.

Учебник открывается несколькими вводными разделами, в которых обсуждается значение цветка в жизненном цикле, происхождение цветка (включая данные о некоторых ископаемых), данные о молекулярно-генетической регуляции морфогенеза цветка (модели A-B-C и A-B-C-D-E), вводятся общие понятия по морфологии цветка. Далее в особых разделах обсуждается структура и морфогенез околоцветника, андроцея, гинецея, оси цветка, нектарников. Очень краткий раздел посвящен соцветиям. Два обширных раздела связаны с обсуждением функциональных и экологических аспектов цветения – прорастание пыльцевых зерен, их рост в тканях пестика, способы предотвращения самоопыления (дихогамия, херкогамия, разделение полов, гетеростилия, самонесовместимость), типы перекрестного опыления и возникающие при биотическом опылении коадаптации между растениями и животными-опылителями. Заключительные разделы описывают морфологию плодов, которые понимаются как цветки в фазе зрелости, а также способы распространения диаспор и связанные с ними адаптации. Важную часть книги составляет обширное приложение, в котором приведена классификация покрытосеменных растений с краткими характеристиками наиболее важных семейств и таксонов более высокого ранга и формулами цветков важнейших представителей. Система цветковым растений очень близка к новейшему варианту системы Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III, 2009), основанной на молекулярно-филогенетических данных. Одно из отклонений от системы APG III – деление покрытосеменных на три класса – Magnoliatae (рано дивергировавшие двудольные), Liliatae (однодольные) и Rosatae (высшие двудольные, «eudicots»). При этом выделение первого класса противоречит принципам кладизма, положенным в основу системы APG, так как он представляет собой парафилетическую группу. Однако мне кажется выделение этой группы в качестве таксона уместным. Как уже сказано, основу учебника составляют данные, полученные непосредственно авторами и описанные в их статьях. Читатель найдет здесь в полном и прекрасно иллюстрированном виде обсуждение тех вопросов, с которыми имена Ляйнса и Эрбар прочно связаны у специалистов: морфогенез и эволюционные преобразования многотычинковых андроцеев; два типа морфогенеза спайнолепестного венчика («ранняя» и «поздняя» спайнолепестность); морфогенез и морфологическая интерпретация нижней завязи; варьирование ранних стадий морфогенеза цветка в группах с его стабильным дефинитивным строением (крестоцветные, зонтичные); способы вторичного преподношения пыльцы у представителей порядка Asterales (включая изумительно иллюстрированное описание втягивающихся волосков на столбике у колокольчиковых); функционирование проводниковой ткани и формирование компитума, закономерности роста пыльцевых трубок; опыты по распространению диаспор под влиянием ветра. Знакомство с учебником Ляйнса и Эрбар заставляет читателя обдумывать большое число вопросов. В некоторых случаях они приводят одно из нескольких возможных решений какого-либо вопроса. Несомненно, это отражает глубоко продуманную позицию авторов, которая, однако, может не совпадать с мнением других исследователей. В частности, Ляйнс и Эрбар критически относятся к концепции конгенитального срастания (которое принципиально невозможно наблюдать в процессе морфогенеза), особенно при интерпретации морфологической природы нижней завязи. Учебник практически не содержит данных о васкулатуре цветка, что, вероятно, также отражает принципиальную позицию авторов о небольшом значении этого признака для проведения гомологий. Не все ботаники согласны с изложенной в учебнике интерпретацией семяпочек некоторых растений как принадлежащих оси цветка, а не плодолистику (например, у Illicium). При описании семейства Chloranthaceae гинецей Ascarina отмечен как имеющий нижнюю завязь, несмотря на то, что у этого растения женский цветок не включает никаких других частей кроме единственного плодолистика. Вероятно, это связано с тем, что нижняя (полунижняя) завязь развита у тех хлорантовых, которые имеют околоцветник в женских цветках (Hedyosmum) либо обоеполые цветки (Chloranthus). Однако в совершенно аналогичной (на мой взгляд) ситуации завязь у Najas характеризуется как верхняя, хотя у родственных Hydrocharitaceae, имеющих околоцветник, она нижняя. Цветок Eupomatia характеризуется как имеющий чашечку в виде калиптры, в то время как, по мнению P.K. Endress (2003), которое представляется мне достаточно обоснованным, эта калиптра представляет собой единственный прицветный лист. Несомненно, учебник Ляйнса и Эрбар будет настольной книгой для широкого круга ботаников. Было бы очень важно издать его русский перевод.

Prof. Dmitry Sokoloff

Botanichesky Zhurnal TOM 96 No. 5, 2011

Review: Thaiszia - Journal of Botany, vol. 21, no 1/ 2011 top ↑

Flowering plants are a major group of seed plants dominating today's terrestrial ecosystems. Their evolutionary success is connected with the formation of specialized reproduction structures. This English translation of the second edition of the former German text book “Blüte und Frucht” (2008) is dealing with all aspects of these structures. Presenting modern views on characteristic flower and fruit phenomena is illustrated by many examles from this very variable group of angiosperm plants.

The book consists of 18 main chapters successively discussing the individual flower and fruit aspects which descriptions are accompanied with schemas and quality photographs at different level of magnification. Each main chapter is ended with selected references and recommendations for further reading.

Several introductory chapters discuss the origin of flowering plants with some fossil records, their life cycle and morphological characteristics of flowers with explanation of basic terms. Genetic models of determination of individual floral parts are also mentioned.

After presenting some general information related to flower ontogeny (differential growth and organ delimitation, number and arrangement of floral organs in basic flower types (from spiral to cyclic) and types of floral symmetry), the individual floral components (perianth, androecium, gynoecium, floral axis and nectaries) are described in detail in separate chapters. In two next short chapters the construction of floral diagrams is explained and individual types of inflorescences are described.

In the extensive chapter “Important flower functions and the relevant adaptations” the authors present a wide variety of partial adaptations related to the elementary flower functions: passing on of mutations to next generations, achievement of the highest possible recombination rate following cross-pollination, prezygotic selection especially of male gametophyte and development of seeds with adaptations for dispersal.

Coadaptations of flowers and their pollinators are interestingly reviewed from the level of individual flower properties to pollination syndromes related to the respective agents of pollination. Next to the well known groups of pollinators, some overlooked animals and their role in pollination are also discussed.

Three final chapters are devoted to the formation of seeds and fruits and their dispersal. Patterns of diaspore dispersal with adaptations to specific dispersal agents and different transport distances are connected with the respective ecological and evolutionary consequences. Variable plant adaptations (anemochory, hydrochory, zoochory, autochory) to various dispersal agents are analyzed here with illustrative examples from different regions of the world.

The special part is Appendix dealing with classification of the flowering plants and containing short descriptions and floral formulas to the subfamily level. Glossary with a list of special terms and References (a selection) are at the end of the book.

This interesting book will be greatly appreciated by all interested in botany, biodiversity, plant–animal interactions and other related subjects dealing with ecological and evolutionary questions.

MARTIN SUVÁK

Thaiszia - Journal of Botany, Kosice, vol. 21, no. 1, p 63-64, 2011

Table of Contents top ↑

Preface V
Beforehand some thoughts on the origin and the important role
of the flowers in the life cycle of plants 1

Early angiosperm flowers – the fossil Archaefructus 6
Short description of an angiosperm flower –
some basic terms 9

The genetic approach to the floral organ determination –
from the A-B-C model to the A-B-C-D-E model 10

Differential growth and organ delimination 15
Number and arrangement of floral organs in the flowers 19
Spiral flowers with high and indefinite organ number 19
Transition to whorled (cyclic) flowers 23
Whorled (cyclic) flowers 26
Floral symmetry 38
The perianth 40
Perigone, calyx, corolla 40
Aestivation 44
Epicalyces 45
Tubular formations in the perianth – syntepaly, synsepaly, sympetaly 46
The androecium 52
Ontogeny of an individual stamen 52
Deviating anther structures 57
The pollen grains 61
Stamen fascicles, fascicled androecia 63
The cabinet of curiosities 71
The staminode concept 72
The gynoecium 80
Ontogeny of an individual carpel 82
The variation of the proportions 85
Choricarpy and coenocarpy 86
The internal design of coenocarpous gynoecia 89
Pollen tube transmitting tissue and compitum 92
The ovules 99
The floral axis 101
Stalk-like elongations of the axis (floral internodes) 101
Cup-shaped formations (floral cups and floral tubes) 101
Hypanthial ovaries with unusual internal designs 107
The inferior ovary in the cucumber family 108
Unusual placentations in connection with intercalary growth processes
in the floral axis 110
Nectaries 114
Different sites of floral nectaries 116
Nectary organs 117
Extra floral nectaries 125
Floral diagrams 127
Inflorescences 131
Important flower functions and the relevant adaptations 136
The problem of hermaphroditism in flowers or:
how to prevent inbreeding 136
Dichogamy 137
Herkogamy 142
Separation of sexes (dicliny) 144
Heterostyly 147
Self-incompatibility 149
Pollen portioning – an optimized handling of the pollen grains 151
The mechanisms of pollen portioning in primary pollen presentation 152
The mechanisms of pollen portioning in secondary pollen presentation 153
Direct and indirect relations of pollen portioning to other parameters 168
Prezygotic selection, pollen tube competition 175
Proportion of autogamy 177
An outline of a correlation net of flower functions 180
The flowers and their pollinators – coadaptations 181
Ecologically determined types of blossom forms – diversity of
insectpollinated flowers 182
Flower colours and floral guides 193
Floral scents 204
Adaptation syndromes of blossoms = blossom syndromes =
pollination syndromes 206
Zoophily and anemophily 206
Hydrophily 214
Syndromes of animal-blossoms 217
Cantharophily (beetle pollination) 217
Myiophily (fly pollination) 222
Melittophily (bee pollination) 228
Wasp pollination 233
Ants as pollinators? 235
Thrips – the overlooked pollinators? 237
Lepidopterophily (lepidopteran pollination) 237
Ornithophily (bird pollination) 241
Lizards as pollinators – an island phenomenon 244
Chiropterophily (bat pollination) 244
Non-flying mammals as pollinators? 246
Delimitation and overlapping of floral syndromes – generalists and
specialists 247
The flower in the state of seed maturity 250
Seed ripening 250
The fruit and its components, an attempt of a definition 252
Classification of fruits 253
The diaspore concept 267
Patterns of seed dispersal 270
Modes of diaspore dispersal and adaptations of the plants
and their diaspores to the dispersing agents 277

Anemochory 279
Wind-flyers 279
Ground-rollers 287
Anemoballists 287
Observations and experiments in poppy capsules 289
Observations and experiments in bellflower capsules 293
Hydrochory 297
Nautochores 298
Rain-ballists 302
Zoochory 304
Epizoochores 304
Zooballists 309
Endozoochores 311
Stomatochores 318
Autochory 321
Growth mechanisms 321
Shrinking mechanisms (hygroscopic mechanisms) 323
Turgor mechanisms 324
Appendix: A classification of the flowering plants as reference for placing
the taxa mentioned in the text 328

Glossary 381
References (a selection) 399
Index 415