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Environmental Geochemical Atlas of the Central Barents Region

Special publication of the Central Kola Expedition, Geological Survey of Finland and Geological Survey of Norway

Ed.: Clemens Reimann; M. Äyräs; V. Chekushin

[Kola Atlas (Kola Project; Ecogeochemistry)]

1998. 745 pages, constantly coloured, 21x30cm, 2630 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65263-1, bound, price: 79.00 €

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Keywords

soil chemistrygeochemistrypollutionmineralsexplorationresourceatlasenvironmentraw materialsmappingrare earthsmossocean sprayenvironmental chemistrynatural backgroundconcentrationkolaecogeochemistry

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

The 745 (mostly color) pages of this atlas are the culmination and documentation of one of the most comprehensive environmental geochemical studies ever undertaken on a regional scale. The Barents region is an area of ca. 190,000 km2, comprising the northernmost part of Norway, Finland, and the western half of the Kola peninsula.

The Central Barents region includes some of the most polluted - and at the same time - some of the most pristine areas of Europe. This report provides abundance data of many elements for which the media concerned (mosses reflecting atmospheric deposition, b- and c- soil horizon as proxies for natural background concentrations and humus and topsoils reflecting interaction between atmosphere, geosphere and biosphere) have not previously been analysed on a large regional scale and demonstrates that many of these are part of the emission spectra from industries within the area covered.

The data contained in this extensive volume cast light on many processes governing the distribution of elements in the biosphere, pedosphere (soils) and geosphere (rocks), challenging some established theories and confirming others. It represents both an end and a beginning, in that the data are now available for use in studies related to toxicological impacts on plants, animals and humans, remediation of polluted areas, the scientific basis for action levels, baseline assessments for new development projects and other fields.

The book is a classic of modern regional environmental geochemistry.

Table of contents top ↑

1 Introduction 9
1.1 Project background 9
1.2 Project area and general landscape 11
1.3 Bedrock Geology 11
1.4 Quaternary Geology/Glaciation 18
1.5 Vegetation 18
1.6 Soil formation, podzols 25
1.7 Climate 27
1.8 Human activities, trade and industry 31
2 Field work 40
3 Sample preparation; chemical analysis and quality control 53
3.1 Sample Preparation and Analyses 53
3.1.1 Moss samples 53
3.1.2 Humus samples 53
3.1.2 Topsoil samples (0-5cm) 54
3.1.3 Mineral soil samples (B-and C-horizon) 54
3.2 Quality Assurance and Quality Control 54
3.2.1 Repeatability 55
3.2.2 Process control, accuracy and trueness 55
3.2.3 Interspecies variation of the moss samples 56
4 Data analysis and mapping 57
4.1 Treatment of data below the detection limit 57
4.2 Box plots 57
4.3 Other graphical plots summarising data behaviour 58
4.4 Mapping 58
4.4.1 Black-and-white point-source maps 59
4.4.2 Colour maps 59
5 Fact sheets 61
6 Geochemical maps and their interpretation 63
Ag (Silver) 64
Al (Aluminium) 76
As (Arsenic) 94
B (Boron) 106
Ba (Barium) H4
Be (Beryllium) 132
Bi (Bismuth) 142
Br (Bromine) 154
Ca (Calcium) 162
Cd (Cadmium) 180
Ce (Cerium) 194
Co (Cobalt) 202
Cr (Chromium) 220
Cu (Copper) 238
Eu (Europium) 252
Fe (Iron) 260
Hf (Hafnium) 280
Hg (Mercury) 288
K (Potassium) 298
La (Lanthanum) 316
Li (Lithium) 332
Lu (Lutetium) 340
Mg (Magnesium) 348
Mn (Manganese) 366
Mo (Molybdenum) 384
Na (Sodium) 394
Nd (Neodymium) 414
Ni (Nickel) 422
P (Phosphorus)436
Pb (Lead) 454
Rb (Rubidium) 468
S (Sulphur) 480
Sb (Antimony) 494
Sc (Scandium) 506
Se (Selenium) 520
Si (Silicon) 528
Sm (Samarium) 544
Sr (Strontium) 552
Te (Tellurium) 566
Th (Thorium) 574
Ti (Titanium) 590
Tl (Thallium) 604
U (Uranium) 612
V (Vanadium) 622
Y (Yttrium) 636
Yb (Ytterbium) 648
Zn (Zinc) 656
6.1 Elements analysed but not presented in the atlas 672
Au (Gold) 673
Cs (Cesium-total content, see also 6.2) 673
Sn (Tin) 674
Ta (Tantalum) 674
Tb (Terbium) 675
6.2 Radionuclides 676
Ac-228 (Actinium) 677
Bi-214 (Bismuth) 678
Cs-137 (Cesium) 679
K-40 (Potassium) 680
Am-241 (Americium - no map shown) 681
Cs-134 (Cesium - no map shown) 681
6.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 692
6.4 Other parameters 694
pH (Humus,Topsoil, B- and C-horizon) 695
Loss on Ignition (Humus,Topsoil, B- and C-horizon) 701
Electrical Conductivity (Humus,Topsoil, B- and C-horizon) 705
C (Carbon in humus) 709
H (Hydrogen in humus) 710
N (Nitrogen in humus) 711
Thickness of Organic layer 712
Depth to Top of C-horizon 713
7 Conclusions 715
7.1 Natural element sources 715
7.1.1 Sea spray 715
7.1.2 Geogenicdust 715
7.1.3 C-horizon results - depicting regional geology and defining exploration targets 715
7.2 Influence of vegetation on regional distribution patterns and element levels 716
7.3 Anthropogenic Element Sources 717
7.3.1 Ni-Cu industry 717
7.3.2 Other industrial sources 717
7.4 Radionuclides 721
7.5 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 721
7.6 Environmental Impact 721
7.6.1 Limited distance of travel of the major pollutants 721
7.6.2 Action levels 724
7.6.3 Visual ecosystem damage and causes 724
8 References 725
APPENDIX - DATA TABLES 729