Nutrients and Heavy Metals in the Odra River System

Emissions from Point and Diffuse Sources, their Loads, and Scenario Calculations on Possible Changes

Ed.: Horst Behrendt; Ralf Dannowski

2005. XV, 353 pages, 83 figures, 121 tables, 58 maps, 6 appendices, ribbon bookmark, 17x24cm, 960 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65297-6, bound, price: 24.80 €

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riverriver systemEuropean Water FrameworkGIS


Synopsis top ↑

The Central-European transboundary river system of the Odra, draining areas of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic, accounts for the third largest catchment in the Baltic Sea basin and one of the most important sources of nutrients and heavy metals discharged into this sea. The book presents the methodology as well as the final results of a bi- and trilateral cooperation lasting for more than five years, directed at the model- and GIS-based analysis and quantification of diffuse sources within the Odra river basin. Different modelling approaches, developed to a considerable extent during the project work in parallel to the expanding database, and statistically based projections allowed for estimating the partial loads of phosphorus, nitrogen and the most important heavy metals transported via the relevant pathways towards the rivers.

The methodology consistently applied in the three neighbouring countries as well as the results both for the period 1993 – 1997 and for different land use scenarios (up to the year 2020) are suitable to give an example for practicising coordinated transboundary action in implementing the European Water Framework Directive. Likewise, they demonstrate the high methodical level and the fruitful outcomes of a long-term international scientific collaboration.

Contents top ↑

1 Introduction 1
2 Description of the Odra basin 5
W.Mioduszewski, F.Dolezal, I.Kajewski, M.Kornmilch & R.Dannowski
2.1 General information 5
2.2 Physical, geographic and hydrographic situation 7
2.3 Hydrogeology 13
2.4 The climate 19
3 Database 21
3.1 Spatial input data 21
J.Steidl, R.Dannowski, D.Deumlich, I.Kajewski, M.Kornmilch, L.Labgdzki, W.Mioduszewski, M. Tippl & A.Zdanowicz
3.2 Data for calculating point source emissions 42
R.Korol, F.Dolezal, M.Kornmilch, E.Maskova, D. Opitz & M. Stronska
3.2.1 Czech Republic 42
3.2.2 Germany 43
3.2.3 Poland 44 Waste water treatment plants and direct industrial discharges 44 Data on fish farming 45
3.3 Monitoring data 46
R. Korol, F. Dolezal, M. Kornmilch, D. Opitz & M. Stronska
3.3.1 Surface water 46
3.3.2 Groundwater 47
3.3.3 Atmospheric deposition 47
3.3.4 Precipitation 48
3.4 Statistical data 49
M. Kornmilch, D.Deumlich, I.Kajewski, J.Klir, W.Mioduszewski, J. Steidl, M. Stronska & A.Zdanowicz
3.4.1 Administrative data 49
3.4.2 Agricultural data 49
3.4.3 Data on sewer systems in urban areas 50
4 Methodology 53
4.1 Nutrient emissions 53
H.Behrendt, R.Dannowski, D.Deumlich, F.Dolezal, I.Kajewski, M.Kornmilch, R.Korol, E.Maskova, W.Mioduszewski, J. Steidl, M. Stronska & M. Tippl
4.1.1 Nutrient emissions from Point Sources 55 Municipal sewage treatment plants and direct industrial discharges 55 Nutrient emissions from fishfarming 58
4.1.2 Nutrient emissions from diffuses sources 59 Nutrient balances 59 Nutrient emissions via atmospheric deposition 66 Nutrient emissions from surface runoff 69 Nutrient emissions by water erosion 72 Nutrient emissions via tile drainage 79 Nutrient emissions via groundwater 82 Nutrient emissions from urban areas 95
4.2 Method for the estimation of heavy metal emissions 102
H.Behrendt, R.Korol, E.Maskova & M. Stronska
4.2.1 Point sources 102 Input via municipal wastewater treatment plants 102 Input via direct industrial discharges 103
4.2.2 Diffuse sources of heavy metal inputs 104 Direct heavy metal input to the surface waters via atmospheric deposition 105 Heavy metal input via surface runoff 105 Heavy metal input via erosion 106 Heavy metal input via tile drainage 107 Heavy metal input via groundwater 108 Heavy metal input from urban areas 108 Heavy metal input via separate sewers 109 Heavy metal input via combined sewer overflows 109 Heavy metal input via sewers not connected to wastewater treatment plants 111 Heavy metal input via households connected neither to wastewater treatment plants nor to sewers 111
4.3 Riverloads 112
M. Kornmilch, E.Maskova, D. Opitz & M. Stronska
4.4 Retention in the rivers 113
H.Behrendt & D. Opitz
4.5 Immission method 117
H.Behrendt, M.Kornmilch, R.Korol & M. Stronska
5 Results and Discussion - Present State 121
5.1 Nutrient emissions from point sources 121
H.Behrendt, M. Stronska, M.Kornmilch E.Maskova & R.Korol
5.2 Nutrient emissions from diffuse sources 128
R.Dannowski, H.Behrendt, D.Deumlich, F.Dolezal, I.Kajewski, M.Kornmilch, W.Mioduszewski & J. Steidl
5.2.1 Nutrient balances 128
5.2.2 Nutrient emissions via atmospheric deposition (MONERIS) 134
5.2.3 Nutrient emissions via surface runoff 139 Results of the NIIRS approach 139 Results of the MONERIS approach 139
5.2.4 Nutrient emissions via erosion 144 Results of the NIIRS approach 144 Results of the MONERIS approach 150 Comparison between the NIIRS and the MONERIS approaches 155
5.2.5 Nutrient emissions via tile drainage(MONERIS) 159
5.2.6 Nutrient emissions via groundwater 164 Results of the MODEST approach 164 Results of the MONERIS approach 187 Comparison of the MODEST and MONERIS approaches 194
5.2.7 Nutrient emissions from urban areas (MONERIS) 199
5.2.8 Total diffuse nutrient emissions (MONERIS) 204
5.3 Total nutrient emissions (MONERIS) 213
H.Behrendt, M. Kornmilch & D. Opitz
5.4 River nutrient loads 221
M. Kornmilch, R. Korol, D. Opitz & M. Stronska
5.5 Comparison between the calculated and observed nutrient loads 226
M. Kornmilch, H.Behrendt, R. Korol, D. Opitz & M. Stronska
5.6 Comparison with the results of the immission method 229
H.Behrendt, M. Kornmilch, R. Korol, D. Opitz & M. Stronska
5.7 Present state ofheavy metal inputs in the Odra basin 232
H.Behrendt, R.Korol, D. Opitz & M.Stronska
5.7.1 Heavy metal emissions 232
5.7.2 Heavy metall oads 237
5.7.3 Comparison between the measured and the calculated heavy
metal loads 241
5.7.4 Comparison of the results of the immission and emission methods forheavymetals 243
6 Scenario Calculations for Nutrients 247
6.1 Point source scenarios 247
R. Korol, H. Behrendt, E. Maskova & M. Stronska
6.1.1 Definition of the point source scenarios 247
6.1.2 Results of point source scenariocal culations 250
6.2 Diffuse source scenarios 268
R.Dannowski, H.Behrendt, D.DeumUch, J.Klir, I.Kajewski, W.Mioduszewski & J. Steidl
6.2.1 Definition of the diffuse source scenarios 268 Scenarios for nutrient emissions via erosion 268 Scenarios for subsurface nitrogen emissions 269
6.2.2 Results of the diffuse source scenario calculations 271 Results of the scenarios for erosion 271 Results of the scenarios for subsurface nitrogen inputs 275
6.3 Summary of the scenarios results 286
H.Behrendt, R.Dannowski, D.DeumUch, F.Dolezal, I.Kajewski, M.Kornmilch, R.Korol, W.Mioduszewski, J. Steidl & M. Stronska
Summary 293
Streszczenie 301
Souhrn 309
Zusammenfassung 317
References 325