Overall-effective measures for sustainable water resources management in the coastal area of Shandong Province, PR China.

Ed.: Stefan Kaden; Wolfgang Geiger

2014. 340 pages, 180 figures, 103 tables, 19x26cm, 1240 g
Language: English

(Konzepte für die nachhaltige Entwicklung einer Flusslandschaft, Band 10)

ISBN 978-3-510-65307-2, bound, price: 118.50 €

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dirinking waterscarcitywater managmentriver managmentEU-WRRL


Synopsis top ↑

The Huangshui river basin of Shandong Province, PR China, is an outstanding example for water conflicts arising from fast growing population, industry and agriculture and piecemeal water management measures that can only be solved by an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. Overexploitation of water resources has resulted in the intrusion of salt water into the groundwater. Water shortage extremely hampers the development of industry and agriculture as the population’s main income source, and pollution impedes ecology and degrades the quality of living.

In this German-Chinese joint project, German traditional expertise in water resources management along with novel developments especially pertaining to the EU Water Framework Directive were brought together with research efforts in the coastal region of Shandong Province to fundamentally improve the water resources situation.

This volume (10) of the book series “Concepts for sustainable development of a river landscape” contains the results of the Sino-German research project „Sustainable water resources management in the coastal region of Shandong Province, PR China“. With a three-level decision support system, strategies and solutions for sustainable water resources development in the study area were developed. Pilot projects and an advanced monitoring system were implemented.

The book addresses scientists, officials, authorities and stakeholders interested in solutions for integrated water resources development and management.
The base for the BMBF IWRM project was laid in the years 2004/ 2005 within the framework of a pre-project under the auspices of the University of Essen (Prof. Geiger) with the support of Shandong Water Conservancy Research Institute (WCRI; Prof. Wang/ Prof. Zhang). This pre-project was also funded by BMBF on the German side and by MOST on the Chinese side.

The proposal for the pre-project was submitted by the Institute of Urban Water Management at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The German company partners in this pre-project, namely DHI-WASY GmbH (Prof. Kaden) and Regierungsbaumeister Schlegel GmbH & Co. KG (Schlegel Consulting Engineers, Mr. Würzberg), contributed to workshops and the formulation of the proposal for a follow-up project, of which this report is a part.

This Sino-German project was started in 2008 with the general goal of creating technical and management methods for the development of an IWRM concept suitable for the Huangshui river basin. IWRM is a process promoting the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.

The project was to bring together long standing German expertise in water management, newer developments (experience with the European Water Framework Directive) and research efforts in the coastal area of Shandong province in order to relieve the desperate water scarcity. After assessment of the present situation and the various abatement measures tried so far, especially to stop salt water intrusion, it was found that the region has a tremendous potential for improvement of the water supply situation by using integrated water management methods. As a study area, Longkou County in the province of Shandong was selected.

Contents top ↑

Figures 0-6
Tables 0-16
Abbrevions 0-21
Project Partners and List of Authors 0-22
1 Introduction 1-24
1.1 Project history and approach 1-24
1.1.1 History 1-24
1.1.2 General project objectives 1-25
1.1.3 Proposed decision making process 1-25
1.1.4 Administration of data collection 1-26
1.1.5 Project web-page 1-27
1.2 Project area and data 1-28
1.2.1 Short description of project area 1-28
1.2.2 Hydrologic and hydro-geologic conditions 1-29
1.2.3 Water-related socio-economic conditions 1-35
1.3 Overall course of work 1-40
2 Socio-economic analysis of IWRM 2-42
2.1 Introduction 2-42
2.2 Assessment of current water uses 2-43
2.2.1 Water use in Shandong Province 2-44
2.2.2 Major aspects of agriculture in China and Shandong 2-49
2.2.3 Water use in Longkou - trend analysis 2-58
2.2.4 Conclusions on the current practice of water use in the project region 2-63
2.3 Overall water balance 2-64
2.4 Transitions and future scenarios on water uses 2-67
2.4.1 Demographic change 2-67
2.4.2 Urbanization 2-67
2.5 Institutional analysis of water management in Shandong Province and
Longkou County 2-72
2.5.1 The three components of water institutions 2-72
2.5.2 Actors and the water scarcity in Shandong and Longkou 2-84
2.5.3 Socio-economic criteria for water management 2-85
2.6 Example for local socio-economic analysis of irrigation techniques 2-89
3 Tools for sustainable water management planning 3-91
3.1 Introduction 3-91
3.2 Measure catalogue 3-93
3.2.1 Categorization of measures in the catalogue 3-93
3.2.2 Selected criteria for quantification of measures 3-97
3.3 Screening of measures 3-100
3.4 DSS Level 1: Pre-selection of suitable alternatives 3-106
3.4.1 Introduction 3-106
3.4.2 Basic variables or building blocks of the water balance 3-106
3.4.3 Connecting climate change and land-use changes 3-117
3.4.4 Evaluating measures 3-118
3.5 Comprehensive models of DSS2 3-126
3.5.1 Introduction 3-126
3.5.2 Groundwater recharge model 3-128
3.5.3 River model 3-134
3.5.4 Groundwater model 3-137
3.5.5 Water allocation model 3-146
3.6 DSS Level 2: Quantification and localization of IWRMmeasures 3-167
3.6.1 GIS-based system 3-168
3.6.2 IWRMmeasures in agriculture 3-175
3.6.3 Application of the GIS-based information system for scenario
analysis for saltwater intrusion abatement 3-186
4 Water saving and wastewater reuse 4-201
4.1 Introduction 4-201
4.2 Water saving 4-201
4.2.1 An example of economics of industrial water saving 4-201
4.2.2 Potential for reduction of water consumption in general (water
saving) 4-202
4.2.3 Water quality requirements for special uses 4-211
4.3 Water recycling and reuse 4-212
4.3.1 Possibilities of water reuse 4-212
4.3.2 Possibility of water recycling 4-212
4.3.3 Ecological water use 4-220
4.3.4 Linkages between domestic, industrial and agricultural water uses 4-221
4.3.5 Alternative ways to increase water availability 4-222
4.3.6 Application of selected principles in pilot projects 4-226
5 Framework for scenario development in IWRM 5-233
5.1 Development of planning scenarios considering the data availability 5-233
5.2 Socio-economic measures influencing water management 5-237
5.3 Water cost scenarios 5-238
5.4 Ranking of the overall effectiveness of quantified water resource
measures for the study area 5-242
6 DSS-based scenario development and analysis for sustainable water
6.1 Selected agricultural scenarios evaluated in detail with the DSS2-
system 6-248
6.1.1 Determination of the variability of agricultural land-use 6-248
6.1.2 Crop changes 6-251
6.1.3 Irrigation Changes 6-255
6.2 Modeling results for selected scenarios 6-263
6.2.1 Scenarios description 6-263
6.2.2 Scenarios with realistic and extreme measures 6-265
6.3 Conclusions 6-278
7 Development of a water monitoring concept 7-281
7.1 Introduction 7-281
7.2 Concept development 7-281
7.2.1 Legal and administrative framework 7-281
7.2.2 Evaluation of the existing monitoring system 7-286
7.2.3 Suggestions for improvement 7-288
7.3 Implementation and major results 7-296
7.3.1 Discharge measurement system 7-297
7.3.2 Model groundwater monitoring system 7-298
8 Conclusions and recommendations 8-300
9 References 9-305
9.1 Literature 9-305
9.2 Website information 9-311
9.3 Planning data 9-315
10 Attachments 10-318
11 Appendix General IWRMmeasure catalogue 322