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Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Basin under Limited Water Resources

Ed.: Frank Wechsung; Stefan Kaden; Markus Venohr; Jürgen Hofmann; Jens Meisel; Zhenci XU

2017. 397 pages, 197 figures, 66 tables, ribbon, 19x26cm, 1300 g
Language: English

(Konzepte für die nachhaltige Entwicklung einer Flusslandschaft, Band 8)

ISBN 978-3-510-65325-6, bound, price: 69.80 €

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Keywords

land managementland usehydrologyriverwaterchina

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

In terms of per capita water availability, the Guanting Basin is one of the world's most water scarce regions. The catchment of the Guanting reservoir ("Guanting basin") covers an area of 43.605 km². With regard to administrative areas the western part belongs to the Shanxi Province while the eastern section is part of Hebei Province. Smaller portions extend into Beijing and Inner Mongolia autonomous region.
The book presents research results of a Chinese-German scenario study that explored sustainable water and land use management strategies in the Guanting Basin. The basin, located northwest of Beijing, is facing dramatic water challenges. Originally, the research approach has been developed in the German landscape for the Elbe River. Within the Guanting project this approach - and model chain - was transferred to completely different conditions of an East Asian landscape and river basin.
Together with Chinese project partners the German researchers adapted their climate, discharge, water balance and nutrient emission models to the regional conditions of the Guanting basin. Additional water quality monitoring, reservoir classification and socio-economic methods as well as different future development scenarios for the region were produced. In the end, a regional integrated model setup has been composed to assess different adaptation options and their benefits to water and land use management under different climate and socio-economic scenarios.

Table of Contents top ↑

Authors and contributors 13
Preface 17
Zhenci XU
1 Future water use in the Guanting basin under climate
change and socio-economic transition
19
Frank Wechsung, Jürgen Hofmann, Tobias Conradt, Ilona M. Otto, Christoph Menz,
Markus Venohr, Ute Mischke, Jens Meisel, Jacob Möhring, Christiane Walter & Stefan Kaden
1.1 Introduction 20
1.2 Study area (Chapter 2) 21
1.3 Overview of the principal modeling approaches and their results 22
1.3.1 Driving scenarios – socio-economy (Chapter 6) 22
1.3.2 Climate Change (Chapter 3) 22
1.3.3 Quasi-natural water discharge (Chapter 4) 24
1.3.4 Water management and economic significance (Chapters 7 and 11) 24
1.3.5 Impacts of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions on surface waters
(Chapter 9) 26
1.4 Complementary surveys 28
1.4.1 Reservoirs (Chapters 7 and 10) 28
1.4.2 Water quality in rivers (Chapter 8) 29
1.5 Adaptation potentials and evaluation of measures (Chapter 11) 30
1.6 Discussion and concluding remarks 30
1.7 References 32
2 The geographical setting for integrated water resource
management in the Guanting basin
35
Frank Wechsung, Tobias Conradt, Ilona M. Otto, Jacob Möhring, Christoph Menz,
Christiane Walter & Jürgen Hofmann
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 The history of the Guanting reservoir and its basin 36
2.3 Administrative and socio-economic overview 39
2.4 Natural conditions 39
2.4.1 Topography 39
2.4.2 Geology 41
2.4.3 Climate 42
2.4.4 Soils 48
2.4.5 Vegetation 49
2.5 Surface water resources and availability 49
2.6 Water quality 51
2.7 Current water allocation 51
2.7.1 Agricultural production 53
2.7.2 Industrial production 55
2.8 Governance of water resources 57
2.8.1 Administrative water allocation 59
2.8.2 Pricing water allocation 59
2.8.3 Water allocation conflicts 60
2.9 Integrated modeling for increased water availability and quality 61
2.10 References 61
3 Regional climate modeling 67
Christoph Menz
3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Data and models 68
3.2.1 Observation datasets 69
3.2.2 The climate models 70
3.3 Results 73
3.3.1 Model evaluation 74
3.3.2 Future projection 75
3.4 Discussion 81
3.5 Conclusion 81
3.6 References 82
4 Simulation of natural water availability with the
eco-hydrological model SWIM
85
Tobias Conradt
4.1 Introduction 85
4.2 Material and methods 87
4.2.1 Spatial data 87
4.2.2 Time series data 91
4.2.3 The SWIM model 91
4.3 Results 92
4.3.1 Calibration and validation 92
4.3.2 STARS scenarios 96
4.3.3 CCLM scenarios 98
4.3.4 Effects of crop and land use changes in agricultural areas 100
4.3.5 Output data propagation to other models 102
4.4 Discussion 102
4.5 Conclusions 103
4.6 References 103
5 Quality assessment of SWIM-Guanting simulations 107
Peter Carl
5.1 Introduction 107
5.2 Direct vs. inverse runoff modeling 108
5.3 Observed Guanting runoff: calibration period 109
5.4 SWIM-Guanting: High intermittency 111
5.5 Streamflow under the microscope 114
5.6 Discussion 116
5.7 Conclusions 116
5.8 References 117
6 Regionalization of socio-economic scenarios and
adaptation options for the Guanting basin
119
Jacob Möhring, Ilona M. Otto & Xiaoxi Wang
6.1 Introduction 119
6.2 Material and methods 120
6.3 The Guanting scenarios results 121
6.4 Discussion 123
6.4.1 Scenario regionalization – The Guanting story line 123
6.4.2 The approach to the technological progress 125
6.4.3 Selection of adaptation options 126
6.5 References 128
7 Water Quantity Management – the Model WBalMo 131
Stefan Kaden, Ines Stäglich & Michael Kaltofen
7.1 Introduction 131
7.2 Material and methods . 133
7.2.1 Data acquisition 13
7.2.2 Model setup and input data in WBalMo 146
7.2.3 Plausibility check 159
7.3 Results 164
7.3.1 Results for climate scenarios with status quo in water management 164
7.3.2 Present and future situations for the 2 °C-scenario 168
7.3.3 County water supply of agricultural operator 169
7.3.4 Results for climate scenarios, modified water management 174
7.3.5 Results for socio-economic scenarios 183
7.4 Discussion 194
7.5 Conclusions 194
7.5.1 Assessment of the surface water situation 194
7.5.2 Assessment of the groundwater situation 195
7.6 References 196
7.7 Abbreviations 196
8 Monitoring of trophic status and phytoplankton in water
bodies of the Guanting basin
197
Ute Mischke, Jürgen Hofmann, Xiangling Ma & Jens Meisel
8.1 Introduction 198
8.2 Material and Methods 198
8.2.1 Availability of current hydrological and chemical data 198
8.2.2 Sampling campaigns self-organized 199
8.2.3 Phytoplankton determination and counts 204
8.2.4 Index calculation 205
8.3 Results of nutrient monitoring in the Guanting basin 205
8.4 Phytoplankton in water bodies of the Guanting basin 209
8.5 Discussion 214
8.6 Conclusions 217
8.7 Acknowledgement 218
8.8 References 218
8.9 Appendix: photo documentation of diatom species in the Guanting basin 221
9 Water quality management: modeling of
nutrient emissions with MONERIS
229
Markus Venohr, Stephanie natho & Jürgen Hofmann
9.1 Introduction 229
9.2 Material and methods 232
9.2.1 Data base 232
9.2.2 Methodology of nutrient emission modeling 242
9.2.3 Implementation of climate and socio-economic scenarios as well as
WBalMo management options 245
9.3 Results 246
9.3.1 Coupling MONERIS with SWIM and WBalMo 246
9.3.2 Adaptation of MONERIS to managed river systems under semi-arid
conditions 247
9.3.3 Total nutrient emissions (1980–2007) 250
9.3.4 River nutrient concentrations and loads 254
9.3.5 Comparison between calculated and observed nutrient loads 256
9.3.6 Nutrient losses to deep groundwater 258
9.4 Results for the reference year 2010 in comparison with the scenario
periods P 2020, P 2030 and P 2035 259
9.4.1 Effects of the STARS 2K climate scenario with and without socioeconomic
changes (A1 and A2) on nutrient emissions and loads 259
9.4.2 Potential effect of management options to reduce nutrient
emissions and surface water concentrations 264
9.4.3 Nutrient emission comparison: Guanting basin vs. European
member states (EU 27) 269
9.5 Discussion 270
9.6 Conclusions 271
9.7 References 273
10 Reservoirs of the Guanting basin 277
Jens Meisel, Zenghui Pan, Thomas gonsiorczyk, Elena Stein & Heiner Kümmel
10.1 Introduction 278
10.2 Material and methods 279
10.2.1 Geographical data 279
10.2.2 Geographic methods 279
10.2.3 Limnological data 280
10.2.4 Limnological methods – analysis of the open water 281
10.2.5 Limnological methods – analysis of sediments 281
10.3 Results 283
10.3.1 Geographical and limnological classification of the reservoirs 283
10.3.2 Limnological analysis of the reservoirs 288
10.3.3 Summary of the limnological conditions of the reservoirs 309
10.4 Discussion 311
10.4.1 Scenarios for the water yield in the future 311
10.4.2 Scenarios for water quality in the future 314
10.4.3 Water Management options for the future 315
10.5 Conclusions 317
10.6 Acknowledgement 318
10.7 References 318
11 Impacts and adaptation 321
Jacob Möhring, Ilona M. Otto & Xiaoxi Wang
11.1 Integrated assessment 321
11.2 Water demand projections 322
11.3 Data and methods of impact assessment 323
11.3.1 Agriculture 324
11.3.2 Industry 325
11.3.3 Municipalities 326
11.3.4 Beijing 327
11.3.5 Groundwater balance 328
11.3.6 Vulnerability indicator 328
11.4 Results of the Impact Assessment 329
11.4.1 Data and methods of adaptation option assessment 332
11.4.2 Benefits of adaptation 332
11.4.3 Costs of adaptation 332
11.4.4 Cost-benefit analysis 334
11.5 Results of the adaptation option assessment 336
11.5.1 Benefits of adaptation 336
11.5.2 Costs of adaptation 338
11.5.3 Costs-benefit analysis 340
11.6 Conclusions and implications of the research 343
11.7 References 344
12 Exploring alternative water distribution rules with
behavioral irrigation experiments
347
Ilona M. Otto & Frank Wechsung
12.1 Introduction 347
12.2 The design of the irrigation experiment 348
12.3 Selection of the participants and execution of the experiments 350
12.4 Experiment results 350
12.5 Information from the post-experiment questionnaires 354
12.6 Conclusions 356
12.7 References 357
13 InfoSYS Guanting 359
Antje Becker & Harry Düwel
13.1 Introduction 359
13.2 Material and methods 360
13.2.1 System configuration and architecture 360
13.2.2 Spatial and non-spatial data 361
13.2.3 Implementation of web application 363
13.3 Results 363
13.3.1 Database 363
13.3.2 Interface and functions 363
13.3.3 Case studies: Working with InfoSYS Guanting 365
13.4 References 373
Glossary 375
List of figures 385
List of tables 395