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Volcanic Soils

Weathering and Landscape Relationships of Soils on Tephra and Basalt

Ed.: E. Fernandez Caldas; Dan H. Yaalon

1985. 151 pages, 47 figures, 51 tables, Catena ISBN 978-3-923381-06-7, US-ISBN 978-1-59326-215-0, 17x24cm, 480 g
Language: English

(Catena Supplements, Volume 7)

ISBN 978-3-510-65348-5, paperback, price: 65.50 €

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Keywords

Volcanic ashBasaltAndo Soilgeomorphology

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Because volcanic soils are not a common occurrence in regions where pedology developed and progressed during its early stages, recognition of their specific properties made an impact only in the late forties. The name Ando soils, now recognized as a special Great Group in all comprehensive soil classification systems, was coined in 1947 during reconnaissance soil surveys in Japan made by American soil scientists. Subsequently a Meeting on the Classification and Correlation of Soils from Volcanic Ash, sponsored by FAO and UNESCO, was held in Tokyo, Japan, in 1964, in preparation for the Soil Map of the World. This was followed by meetings of a Panel on Volcanic Ash Soils in Latin America, Turrialba, Costa Rica, in 1969 and a second meeting in Pasto, Colombia, in 1972. At the International Conference on Soils with Variable Charge, Palmerston, New Zealand, 1981, the subject of Andosols was discussed intensively. Most recently the definitions of Andepts, as presented in the 1975 U.S. Soil Taxonomy, prompted the establishment of an International Committee on the Classification of Andisols (ICOMAND), chaired by M. Leamy from C.S.I.R., New Zealand, which held a number of international classification workshops, the latest in Chile and Ecuador, in January 1984. The continuous efforts to improve and revise the new classification of these soils is also reflected in some of the papers in this volume.
While Andosols or Andisols formed on tephra (volcanic ash), essentially characterized by low bulk density (less than 0.9 g/cm3) and a surface complex dominated by active Al, cover worldwide an area of about 100 million hectares (0.8% of the total land area), the vast basaltic plateaus and their associated soils cover worldwide an even greater area, frequently with complex age and landscape relationships. While these soils do not generally belong to the ando group, their pedogenetic pathways are also strongly influenced by the nature and physical properties of the basalt rock. The papers in this volume cannot cover the wide variety of properties of the soils in all these areas, some of which have been reviewed at previous meetings. In this volume there is a certain emphasis on some of the less frequently studied environments and on methods of study and characterization as a means to advance the recognition and classification of these soils.

Table of Contents top ↑

R.L. Parfitt & A.D. Wilson
Estimation of allophane and halloysite in
three sequences of volcanic soils, New Zealand 1
J.M. Hernandez Moreno, V. Cubas Garcia, A. Gonzalez Batista &
E. Fernandez Caldas
Study of ammonium oxalate reactivity at pH 6.3 (Ro)
in different types of soils with variable charge. I 9
E. Fernandez Caldas, J. Hernandez Moreno,
M.L. Tejedor Salguero, A. Gonzalez Batista & V. Cubas Garcia
Behaviour of oxalate reactivity (Ro) in different types of andisols. II 24
D.J. Radcliffe & G.P. Gillman
Surface charge characteristics of volcanic ash soils
from the southern highlands of Papua New Guinea 35
J. Gonzalez Bonmati, M.P. Vera Gomez & J.E. Garcia Hernandez
Kinetic study of the experimental weathering of augite at different
temperatures 47
P.A Riezebos
High-concentration levels of heavy minerals in two volcanic soils from
Colombia: a possible paleoenvironmental interpretation 63
L.J. Evans & W. Chesworth
The weathering of basalt in an arctic environment 77
R. Jahn, Th. Gudmundsson & K. Stahr
Carbonatisation as a soil forming process on soils from
basic pyroclastic fall deposits on the island of
Lanzarote, Spain 87
P. Quantin
Characteristics of the Vanuatu a
Andosols 99
P. Quantin, B. Dabin, A. Bouleau, L. Lulli & D. Bidini
Characteristics and genesis of two Andosols in central Italy 107
A. Limbird
Genesis of soils affected by discrete volcanic ash inclusions,
Alberta, Canada 119
M.L. Tejedor Salguero, C. Jimenez Mendoza,
A. Rodriguez Rodriguez & E. Fernandez Caldas
Polygenesis on deeply weathered pliocene basalt, Gomera (Canary
Islands): from ferrallitization to salinization 131